Batalha de Stamford Bridge, 25 de setembro de 1066

Batalha de Stamford Bridge, 25 de setembro de 1066


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Batalha de Stamford Bridge, 25 de setembro de 1066

Segunda das três batalhas de 1066 que terminaram em Hastings, e a única vitória inglesa. Tendo derrotado as tropas dos condes Morcar e Edwin em Fulford (20 de setembro), o rei Harald Hardrada da Noruega e seu aliado Tostig aceitaram reféns de York e iniciaram negociações com os nortumbrianos, na esperança de obter sua ajuda contra Haroldo. Esta era uma possibilidade real - York teve um rei viking no século anterior, enquanto Swegen Forkbeard, rei da Dinamarca, estabeleceu uma dinastia que governou a Inglaterra de 1013 a 1042. Harald e Tostig retiraram-se de York para Stamford Bridge, 11 quilômetros a leste de a cidade, para aguardar seus reféns.

Harald e Tostig parecem estar planejando uma invasão do sul. Aparentemente, não ocorreu a eles que o rei Harold poderia mover-se para o norte para atacá-los, em vez disso, esperava que ele ficasse na costa sul para se proteger contra Guilherme. No entanto, Harold já havia dispensado seu exército na costa sul quando seus suprimentos começaram a se esgotar e estava livre para marchar para o norte. Ao saber da invasão norueguesa, ele marchou para o norte, reunindo um exército enquanto marchava. Presumivelmente, alguns desses soldados eram os mesmos homens que haviam guardado recentemente a costa sul, mas muitos devem ter sido reunidos na estrada ao norte, de áreas muito distantes da costa sul para que elementos significativos do exército tivessem retornado a eles. O reino anglo-saxão repetidamente provou ser capaz de reunir um grande número de tropas, e 1066 não seria exceção.

Harold chegou a Tadcaster (13 quilômetros a sudoeste de York) no domingo, 24 de setembro. O exército na costa sul fora dispensado em 8 de setembro, então Harold teve pouco mais de duas semanas para reunir um exército e marchar para York. Essa foi uma conquista significativa por si só e ele não a desperdiçou. No dia seguinte, Harold marchou por York e seguiu para Stamford Bridge, onde encontrou o exército norueguês totalmente inconsciente de sua abordagem. Seguiu-se um grande massacre em que Tostig e Harald Hardrada foram mortos. A vitória de Harold foi total. o Crônica Anglo-Saxônica registra que os sobreviventes precisaram apenas de vinte e quatro navios para voltar para casa, após terem chegado em 300.

O incidente mais famoso da batalha de Stamford Bridge pode não ter acontecido. De acordo com a história, um único herói Viking bloqueou uma ponte sobre o Derwent que Harold e os ingleses precisavam cruzar. No início, ninguém conseguiu derrotar esse herói. As flechas não conseguiram mudá-lo, e foi só quando alguém entrou no rio e o apunhalou por baixo que ele foi morto e os ingleses conseguiram passar pela ponte. É certamente possível que a ponte sobre o Derwent em Stamford Bridge fosse muito estreita, mas as fontes contemporâneas não mencionam esse incidente. A versão C do Crônica Anglo-Saxônica contém o conto, mas apenas em um acréscimo adicionado em algum ponto durante o próximo século. Não existe nas versões D ou E.

Mais significativo é o debate sobre o impacto de Stamford Bridge na batalha de Hastings. Uma parte significativa do exército originalmente pretendia derrotar Guilherme marchou para o norte até Stamford Bridge e nunca mais voltou? Harold cometeu erros em suas ações contra William depois de sua marcha rápida de ida e volta para York? Infelizmente, as fontes não são adequadas para apoiar tais argumentos detalhados. O que podemos ter certeza é que Stamford Bridge viu a derrota do último ataque viking sério contra a Inglaterra. Outras incursões foram feitas, mas nunca mais foram uma ameaça séria. Harold havia conquistado uma das maiores de todas as vitórias anglo-saxãs.


Stamford Bridge: a última vitória anglo-saxônica

A Batalha de Hastings em 1066 não foi apenas um evento seminal na história britânica, mas também é amplamente considerada como um ponto de viragem na história militar: o momento em que um modo de guerra da 'Idade das Trevas' baseado na infantaria pesada deu lugar a uma 'Idade Média' 'forma de guerra baseada na cavalaria blindada.

Na historiografia tradicional britânica, "a era da cavalaria" começou quando o séquito de cavaleiros normandos destruiu a muralha de escudos anglo-saxões em Senlac Hill. Em nossa edição especial, desafiamos essa concepção de frente. Os conflitos anglo-saxões anteriores revelam uma história diferente, como a campanha que culminou na Batalha de Stamford Bridge perto de York em 25 de setembro de 1066, quando o rei Harold II, à frente do principal exército de campo anglo-saxão, derrotou o que resultou para ser a última invasão Viking da Inglaterra.

Assim que o foco é mudado de Hastings, os eventos assumem um novo aspecto. O exército de Harold conseguiu duas marchas forçadas fenomenais - em cada ocasião com uma média de 17 milhas por dia durante cerca de duas semanas - e travou duas batalhas campais em grande escala contra enormes exércitos estrangeiros de invasão, um viking, um normando.

No final desta campanha, Hastings, lutou em 14 de outubro de 1066 perto da costa sul, estava excepcionalmente perto. A morte do rei anglo-saxão parece ter sido decisiva. Há todos os motivos para acreditar que, exceto por esse acidente, a parede de escudos anglo-saxônica poderia ter se mantido firme.

O argumento aqui é que não havia nada "retrógrado" no modo de guerra anglo-saxão, com sua ênfase na luta a pé, em linha, em formação defensiva - o que as fontes contemporâneas chamam de "forte de escudo". De fato,
apesar de todo o exagero em torno da cavalaria feudal, não há nenhuma boa razão para pensar que o cavalo pesado é mais predominante no período medieval do que em qualquer outro.

A falta de uma boa infantaria às vezes era um problema. Mas os governantes medievais sábios o suficiente para criá-los e implantá-los - ou simplesmente para empregar seus nobres homens de armas a pé - invariavelmente os consideravam capazes de suportar cargas de cavalos pesados ​​quanto seus pares em outros períodos.

Os piqueiros escoceses de Falkirk e Bannockburn, os club-men flamengos de Courtrai, os arqueiros e soldados ingleses de Crécy e Agincourt não representavam tanto um retorno da infantaria ao predomínio do campo de batalha como uma continuação de uma tradição de infantaria ininterrupta obscurecida por mito feudal e romântico.


Batalha de Stamford Bridge, 25 de setembro de 1066 - História

Rei Harold II, tendo abandonado sua espera pela esperada invasão normanda no sul da Inglaterra devido a um desembarque inesperado no norte por um enorme exército veterano de viquingues sob seu temido rei, Harald Hardraada, marchou rapidamente com seus enormes, principalmente montados (huscarls) , Exército fortemente armado ao norte 180m para York em apenas 4 dias e noites com uma breve parada noturna em Tadcaster, moveu-se direto por York, postando guardas de Huscarls em cada portão da cidade para evitar vazamento de sua presença.

Ele pretendia surpreender e massacrar completamente o feroz exército nórdico (poucas horas antes de York - portanto, todo o norte? - ceder a Hardrada, e também lá aprendendo com magnatas locais onde o exército nórdico estava?) E então correr de volta para o sul antes que William pudesse terra - então esperando na costa da Normandia por um vento favorável do sul. Os nórdicos estavam então passando o tempo ocioso esperando os VIPs / reféns e amplificadores de York descansando - SEM ARMADURA - no calor do final do verão em ambos os lados das margens do rio Derwent.

Hardraada ficara tão entusiasmado com a vitória em Fulford Gate apenas cinco dias antes, que fatalmente não postou batedores longe do campo para reconhecer quaisquer inimigos inesperados (e ele permitiu que seus guerreiros deixassem suas armaduras com sua frota em Riccall) - estranho para um veterano tão experiente e astuto, talvez?
Consequentemente, a primeira coisa que souberam de qualquer saxão na localidade foi uma enorme nuvem de poeira da estrada e metal brilhante à distância em direção a York em Gate Helmsley 1m de distância (como uma "camada de gelo" de acordo com Sturlasson) - poderia ser a embaixada de York se aproximando?

Com horror, Harald e Tostig perceberam que quase haviam sido emboscados pelo próprio Rei Harold, que pensaram estar a 180 m de distância para o SUL e, ordenando que os velozes avisassem sua guarda da frota a algumas milhas de distância para se juntar a ele o mais rápido possível, Hardrada também ordenou as tropas na margem oeste para travar uma ação retardadora (ou foram simplesmente pegos depois de roubar o gado em busca de comida e, em seguida, relaxar?), enquanto ele formava apressadamente seu exército principal na margem leste em um enorme círculo pronto para os temíveis marujos e arqueiros de Harold e fyrdsmen.

Atacando direto na 'margem leste' dos vikings (formando um semicírculo rudimentar flanqueado pelo Derwent em suas extremidades), os huscarls de Harold usaram (ou foram obrigados a usar) sua vantagem montada e a vanguarda inglesa os atacou (como eu acredito) , derrubando muitos & amp, em seguida, teve como objetivo tomar a ponte (então uma travessia de tábuas de madeira, larga o suficiente apenas para dois homens) e cortar a maioria deles, até que a infantaria saxônica alcançou seus inimigos - os nórdicos e ingleses se desintegraram em uma agitação massa de homens lutando e, com a ponte abarrotada de homens, muitos nórdicos foram empurrados de volta para o rio, onde se afogaram.

Um grande nórdico com cota de malha ficou sozinho na extremidade oeste da ponte (de acordo com a lenda escandinava - mas não em fontes inglesas, estranhamente), matando qualquer inglês com seu machado que se aproximasse dele, impedindo o avanço de Harold.
Se esta história for verdadeira, então Harold, talvez momentaneamente admirando sua bravura, deve ter ordenado que seus arqueiros, infantaria e cavalaria se contivessem de matar esse "herói" ali mesmo, talvez vendo que Hardraada / Tostig já havia formado uma defensiva feroz formação através do rio subindo a encosta de qualquer maneira, portanto, tarde demais para pegá-los expostos, mesmo se ele matasse este guerreiro solitário imediatamente?
O exército principal de Hardrada tinha ganhado tempo suficiente, e eles continuaram rugindo com seu camarada solitário, mas o herói acabou sendo derrubado por um saxão empreendedor que usou uma banheira na margem do rio (se escondendo sob as copas das árvores penduradas?
Sua façanha é ainda hoje celebrada na cidade de York "Tortas de Lança") e empalou este herói entre as pernas através dos estribos de madeira da ponte. O exército de Haroldo então se espalhou pela ponte e se formou (cavalaria à frente, infantaria atrás?) Enquanto os arqueiros "cobriam" seu avanço e retaguarda.

Um parlez supostamente ocorreu com o exército nórdico principal do rio encosta acima - Harold pessoalmente oferecendo a seu irmão sua vida (e condado da Nortúmbria?) Se ele trocasse de lado, (ele deve ter sido tentado, mas não pôde enfrentar o vergonha de trair Hardrada que patrocinou esta invasão, assim como não poderia não confiar em seu irmão - a quem ele ainda queria vingar).
Mas então, o que os condes Edwin e Morcar pensariam disso, quando eles e seus apoiadores ouvissem isso mais tarde?
Tostig recusou sua oferta, quer ele realmente quisesse dizer isso ou não, e os desafiadores nórdicos rugiram suas recusas de volta aos homens de Harold, então a batalha começou novamente. huscarl contra viking.

Harold deve ter percebido que seu exército agora estaria lutando um pouco morro acima, de costas para o rio!
Apenas uma carga Viking como a inglesa em Fulford cinco dias antes e. desastre para ele?

Huscarls montados de Harold (se Sturlasson- escrevendo muito mais tarde- não está confundindo Stamford com Senlac?) avançou até a densa parede nórdica circular de escudos trancados e lançou lanças para cima e disparou suas próprias lanças e rapidamente girou, depois repetiu, para derrubar seus inimigos (os nórdicos as duas primeiras filas agacharam-se atrás de escudos entrelaçados, mirando suas próprias lanças no peito do cavaleiro, tornando v.impossível enfrentá-los, enquanto os que estavam atrás apontavam para os baús dos cavalos), enquanto os arqueiros e lançadores de lança choviam mísseis sobre a cavalaria de dentro do círculo de Hardrada.

Isso continuou indeciso, os nórdicos pensando que era um tanto indiferente aos saxões, mas continuou. Hardrada - que tinha estado dentro do círculo para tapar qualquer lacuna em sua parede de homens - liderou um ataque feroz com uma força de retentores (como em Fulford) em busca de fama heróica eterna (?) Rompeu a hierarquia e atacou os saxões enquanto eles se retiravam para se reagrupar , como era essa tática, derrubar muitos saxões, enquanto o restante de seu exército mantinha a formação e lutava atrás.
Quando eles foram expostos ao ar livre fora de seu 'círculo' com seu feroz ataque de contra-ataque, a cavalaria e os arqueiros ingleses que eles atacaram os atacaram com lanças de todas as direções, matando muitos.
Pode ter parecido que os ingleses estavam para ser derrotados, mas justamente nesse ponto ... Hardrada foi atingido na garganta por uma flecha fortuita entre muitas, derrubando-o junto com a maioria dos homens que o acompanhavam.

Um segundo parlez ?? Talvez outra oferta de paz de Harold durante a calmaria enquanto os exércitos se reformavam novamente (os houscarls desmontaram?), Quem precisava de todos os seus homens vivos e bem para retornar ao sul o mais rápido possível?
Mas os nórdicos rugiram em desafio - instados pelo novo líder Tostig, que também foi morto logo depois, enquanto os huscarls e os fyrdsmen se chocavam a pé com os nórdicos desafiadores. Uma fase ainda mais feroz agora se enfurecia - mais sangrenta do que antes, os nórdicos sem armadura sendo massacrados pelos anos 100 - os saxões sofrendo enormes baixas enquanto o faziam - enquanto o dia sombrio dava lugar à carnificina em "planos de batalha".
"Tempestade de Orri". Neste ponto, o armado, mas exausto, guarda da frota nórdica, liderado por Orri Eystein (futuro genro nobre de Hardrada) chegou e colidiu fortemente com o saxão emaranhado / vikings do sudeste (muitos nórdicos desabaram e morreram de exaustão apenas correndo para a batalha, outros jogaram fora sua cota de malha apenas para serem mortos), quase batendo os saxões de Harold para trás / para os lados com seu impulso inicial de força e ferocidade, os ingleses apenas mantiveram suas linhas e controlaram o novo exército nórdico até a paralisação.
Uma nova e amarga luta se desenrolou - "Tempestade de Orri" (Fontes nórdicas afirmam que este foi "o mais feroz de todos"), a terrível carnificina a curta distância continuou "até o anoitecer" - ambos os lados se debatendo em um feroz hematoma - os saxões mataram em grande número, mas finalmente os nórdicos exauridos foram finalmente derrotados & amp encaminhados de volta para seus navios (e localmente - pela 'cavalaria' de Harold?) na escuridão.
Muitos foram mortos por machado e espada enquanto fugiam durante a noite, muitos outros foram presos e queimados vivos em celeiros onde se esconderam, etc. Com grande custo para o exército de Harold, eles obtiveram uma vitória impressionante.

Aftermath. Os nórdicos foram tão massacrados que apenas 24 navios de seus 300 originais navegaram para casa(mais de 90% de seu exército!) - depois que o filho de Hardrada, o príncipe Olaf (na verdade se tornou um governante nórdico pacífico), jurou paz e deu reféns e saqueou, então os lamentáveis ​​1000 sobreviventes em choque navegaram para o norte para as Orkneys, recolhendo os nórdicos em Holderness, Scarborough e Cleveland a caminho.
& # 8226 Orderic Vitalis observou que mesmo em sua época (12 ºC) seus ossos ainda podiam ser vistos em pilhas.
& # 8226 Geoffrey Gaimar, escrevendo na época, disse & # 8220 ninguém poderia contar a metade dos que ficaram no campo & # 8221


Na batalha de Stamford Bridge em 25 de setembro de 1066, Harold, o rei da Inglaterra, derrotou seu irmão Tostig e o rei norueguês Harald. Embora a força de 15.000 homens de Harold e rsquos tenha obtido uma vitória decisiva quando os dois líderes inimigos morreram em batalha, ele perdeu até 5.000 soldados. Como resultado, ele ficou significativamente enfraquecido e finalmente sofreu uma derrota na Batalha de Hastings logo depois que Harold morreu naquela batalha.

A Batalha de Stamford Bridge também é conhecida como a cena de uma das maiores estandes de um homem só já vistas em um campo de batalha. O exército nórdico ficou chocado com a chegada repentina das forças saxãs de Harold & rsquos e estava completamente despreparado. Harald da Noruega tentou se reagrupar e formar uma linha defensiva para dar a seus homens uma chance de lutar. Uma frágil ponte de madeira era tudo o que existia entre os saxões e o vulnerável exército nórdico. Um gigante berserker nórdico tripulou a ponte e desafiou o inimigo a atacar o que eles fizeram e encontraram a morte através do machado e da espada do defensor.

Dezenas de guerreiros saxões tentaram passar pelo Berserker, mas todos falharam, pois ele matou pelo menos 40 deles sozinho. Ele aparentemente se manteve firme por quase uma hora, tempo suficiente para que seus companheiros vikings se reagrupassem. Infelizmente, ele não viu um saxão inteligente que remou até o fundo da ponte e saiu para apunhalar o furioso na virilha.

O grande sacrifício do guerreiro e rsquos foi em vão quando os saxões invadiram a ponte e derrotaram o exército viking. O rei Harald da Noruega morreu com uma flecha na garganta e, com a perda em Stamford Bridge, a influência dos vikings na coroa britânica morreu. Apesar de sua derrota, a lenda do Berserker vive, pois por um breve período o poderoso exército saxão foi desafiado por um único homem.


A Batalha de Stamford Bridge

Em 05 de janeiro de 1066, o rei (e mais tarde o santo) Eduardo, o Confessor da Inglaterra, morreu sem um herdeiro, iniciando uma luta de um ano pelo poder na Inglaterra. De acordo com a Vita Ædwardi Regis, pouco antes de o rei Eduardo morrer, ele colocou o Reino sob a & # 8216proteção & # 8217 de seu cunhado, Harold Godwinson.

Godwinson foi coroado Rei da Inglaterra em 06 de janeiro de 1066 na Abadia de Westminster. Quando Guilherme, o Bastardo, duque da Normandia, ouviu a notícia, ele começou a planejar uma invasão da Inglaterra. William acreditava que era o herdeiro legítimo e Godwinson roubou o trono dele. Há evidências que sugerem que Guilherme visitou o rei Eduardo nos anos 1050 e 8217 e durante a visita Eduardo pode ter prometido o trono a Guilherme. William estava empenhado em garantir que a promessa fosse cumprida. Ele montou um exército e mais de 700 navios, prontos para navegar para a Inglaterra.

William não era o único candidato ao trono. Na Noruega, o rei Harald Hardrada também estava de olho no Reino da Inglaterra. Harald era um feroz guerreiro Viking, passando um tempo na Guarda Varangiana e lutando batalha após batalha para reivindicar o trono dinamarquês. Incapaz de conquistar a Dinamarca, Harald renunciou ao trono dinamarquês em 1064.

Em 1066, Tostig Godwinson, irmão do novo rei Harold Godwinson, jurou lealdade a Hardrada e o aconselhou a invadir a Inglaterra e reivindicar o trono. Tostig foi o conde da Northumberia de 1055 a 1065, mas nunca foi um governante popular. Ele foi implicado no assassinato de vários membros de famílias proeminentes de Northumberian. Seu irmão Harold, um conselheiro do Rei Edward, o Confessor, convenceu o Rei a retirar o título de Tostig & # 8217s e bani-lo. Em 1065, o rei Eduardo seguiu o conselho e exilou Tostig.

Tostig tentou fazer uma aliança com Guilherme, o Bastardo, mas não teve sucesso e passou o verão de 1066 na Escócia. Ele então contatou o rei Harald Hardrada e o convenceu a derrubar seu irmão, o rei Harold Godwinson.

Harald concordou e traçou planos para invadir a Inglaterra. Em setembro de 1066, Hardrada navegou para a Inglaterra com 10.000 homens e 300 barcos. A primeira grande batalha ocorreu em 20 de setembro de 1066. A Batalha de Fulford foi uma vitória clara para Hardrada e seus homens. Eles derrotaram facilmente os homens da Nortúmbria e da Mércia. Por causa da grande derrota, o rei Harold foi forçado a marchar para o norte com seus homens para impedir as forças invasoras de Hardrda.

Godwinson marchou com seus homens de Londres a York por uma distância de 190 milhas (310 km) em menos de uma semana. O exército inglês liderado pelo rei Harold Godwinson encontra a força invasora norueguesa, liderada pelo rei Harald Hardrada em 25 de setembro de 1066 em Stamford Bridge. O exército do Rei Harold & # 8217 pegou os noruegueses de surpresa. Hardrada e seus homens esperavam uma leve resistência da população local. Eles não estavam usando armaduras e metade de sua força estava protegendo os navios.

De acordo com o historiador islandês Snorri Sturluson, antes de a batalha começar, um homem cavalgou Harald Hardrada e Tostig. Ele falou com Tostig, oferecendo a volta de seu condado se ele se voltasse contra Hardrada. Tostig perguntou o que o rei Godwinson ofereceria a Hardrada por seu problema. O piloto respondeu & # 8220Seven pés de solo inglês, já que ele é mais alto do que os outros homens. & # 8221 Tostig recusou a oferta. Quando o homem partiu, Hardrada perguntou a Tostig quem era o homem, Tostig respondeu: Rei Harold Godwinson.

A batalha começou e os noruegueses pareciam ter a vantagem, bloqueando a ponte dos ingleses. De acordo com as Crônicas Anglo-Saxônicas, um homem sozinho segurou a ponte:

Então houve um dos noruegueses que resistiu ao povo inglês, para que não passassem a ponte, nem obtivessem a vitória. Então um inglês mirou nele com um dardo, mas não aproveitou nada e então veio outro sob a ponte, e o perfurou terrivelmente por dentro sob a cota de malha.

- Crônicas Anglo-Saxônicas

Assim que o homem foi morto, os ingleses avançaram pela ponte e massacraram os noruegueses. Hardrada foi morto no início da batalha quando uma flecha atingiu sua garganta. É registrado nas sagas, quando Hardrada foi morto, ele estava em um estado berseker, lutando ferozmente, tentando desesperadamente derrotar os ingleses.

A força de noruegueses guardando os navios correu para reforçar Hardrda. As tropas eram lideradas por Eystein Orre e os homens estavam totalmente armados e blindados para a batalha. O contra-ataque, apelidado & # 8220Orre & # 8217s Storm & # 8221 por sua ferocidade, interrompeu brevemente os ingleses. Mas eles logo foram oprimidos e derrotados. Orre foi morto durante o contra-ataque. No final, o rei Harald Hardrda foi morto e seu exército derrotado. Tostig também foi morto na batalha.

A morte de Harald Hardrada é considerada o fim da Era Viking na Inglaterra

Dizia que tantos homens morreram em uma área tão pequena que o campo ficou cheio de ossos dos mortos por mais de 50 anos.

A Batalha de Stamford Bridge foi a primeira grande defesa de sua coroa pelo rei Harold, mas não seria a última. Três dias depois de Stamford Bridge, a força de invasão de William, o Bastardo, pousou 260 milhas ao sul em Pevensey Bay, Sussex. Harold Godwinson reuniu suas tropas e rumou para o sul para impedir outra invasão.


Rescaldo

O rei Harold aceitou uma trégua com os noruegueses sobreviventes, incluindo o filho de Harald, Olaf, e Paul Thorfinnsson, conde de Orkney. Eles foram autorizados a partir depois de prometerem não atacar a Inglaterra novamente. As perdas sofridas pelos noruegueses foram tão graves que apenas 24 navios da frota de mais de 300 foram necessários para transportar os sobreviventes. [1] Eles se retiraram para Orkney, onde passaram o inverno, e na primavera Olaf voltou para a Noruega. O reino foi então dividido e compartilhado entre ele e seu irmão Magnus, que Harald havia deixado para trás para governar em sua ausência. [19]

A vitória de Harold durou pouco. Três dias após a batalha, em 28 de setembro, um segundo exército de invasão liderado por Guilherme, duque da Normandia, desembarcou em Pevensey Bay, Sussex, na costa sul da Inglaterra. Harold teve que virar imediatamente suas tropas e forçá-las a marchar para o sul para interceptar o exército normando. [20] Menos de três semanas após Stamford Bridge, em 14 de outubro de 1066, o exército inglês foi decisivamente derrotado e o Rei Harold II caiu em ação na Batalha de Hastings, [21] iniciando a conquista normanda da Inglaterra, um processo facilitado pelo pesadas perdas entre os comandantes militares ingleses. [ citação necessária ]


A Batalha de Stamford Bridge

Houve vários pretendentes ao trono da Inglaterra com a morte do rei Eduardo, o Confessor da Inglaterra, sem filhos, que foi sucedido por seu cunhado, Harold Godwineson, que foi escolhido pelo Witan, em janeiro do ano agitado de 1066. Esses pretendentes incluíam Harald Hardrada, ("harðráði" em nórdico antigo, que significa "governante rígido"), rei da Noruega, que montou uma frota de 300 navios, provavelmente transportando cerca de 15.000 soldados, para invadir a Inglaterra e fazer valer sua reivindicação.

Harold Hardrada

Um guerreiro renomado, Harald Hardrada foi descrito por Snorri Sturluson como sendo "maior e mais forte do que os outros homens". Dizia-se que ele tinha cabelos claros e barba e bigode, uma de suas sobrancelhas estava situada um pouco mais alta do que a outra. Ele também tinha mãos e pés grandes e havia rumores de que tinha 2,10 metros de altura.

Hardrada chegou ao largo da costa inglesa em setembro, onde seu exército foi reforçado por Tostig Godwineson, o rebelde e descontente irmão de Harold, à frente das forças de Flandres e da Escócia.

Tostig se opôs fortemente a seu irmão mais velho, Harold, após uma revolta em 1065 contra seu governo como conde da Nortúmbria. Harold o removeu de sua posição e o exilou. Tostig se refugiou com seu cunhado, o conde Baldwin V de Flandres, o sogro de Guilherme da Normandia e agora estava decidido a se vingar. Ele viajou para a corte de Harald Hardrada e o persuadiu a invadir a Inglaterra.

No final do verão de 1066, Hardrada e Tostig desembarcaram em Tyne, eles saquearam e queimaram a cidade de Scarborough e navegaram pelo rio Ouse antes de avançarem sobre a cidade de York. Eles derrotaram um exército anglo-saxão enviado para enfrentá-los sob o comando de Edwin, conde da Mércia e seu irmão Morcar, conde da Nortúmbria na Batalha de Fulford em 20 de setembro, após a qual York se rendeu e os reféns foram exigidos dos nortumbrianos. Eles então navegaram pelo Humber e desembarcaram em Riccall.

O rei Haroldo estava esperando no sul da Inglaterra, na expectativa da invasão pendente de Guilherme da Normandia. Guilherme afirmou que o trono havia sido prometido a ele por seu primo Eduardo, o Confessor. Chegaram notícias do ataque viking e Harold correu para o norte com seus housecarls e tantos thegns quanto pôde reunir.

Continuando a viajar dia e noite, Harold marchou com seu exército implacavelmente de Londres a Yorkshire, uma distância de cerca de 185 milhas, em apenas quatro dias, o que lhe permitiu pegar os noruegueses completamente de surpresa.

Saber que os nortumbrianos haviam recebido ordens de enviar reféns e suprimentos aos vikings em Stamford Bridge, 11 quilômetros a leste de York. Harold avançou para atacá-los neste ponto de encontro. Nenhuma força foi deixada em York, permitindo Harold marchar direto para Stamford Bridge. Hardrada, possivelmente presumindo que o rei Harold não deixaria o sul da Inglaterra sob a ameaça de uma invasão normanda, com segurança deixou um terço de seus homens e armaduras em seu acampamento base em Riccall, no rio Ouse, antes de se aproximar de Stamford Bridge.

Em uma negociação antes da batalha, Harold ofereceu a seu irmão, Tostig, seu condado de volta se ele depor as armas e se juntar a ele, Tostig perguntou quais terras inglesas Harald Hardrada poderia esperar se dispensasse seu exército viking. O rei Haroldo respondeu que 'ele ofereceria a Harald 2,10 metros de bom solo inglês, ou tanto quanto ele precisasse, já que ele era mais alto do que os outros homens'.

O exército viking, pego de surpresa pelos ingleses, foi dividido, com algumas de suas tropas posicionadas no lado oeste do rio Derwent e a maior parte de seu exército no lado leste. O dia 25 de setembro de 1066, foi um dia quente, para a época do ano, o que levou os vikings a deixar seus byrnies (uma cota de malha atingindo o meio da coxa) em seus navios, colocando-os em nítida desvantagem na batalha seguinte .

A Batalha de Stamford Bridge

Quando o principal exército inglês chegou ao local, os vikings do lado oeste do rio já haviam sido mortos ou estavam fugindo pela ponte. Os ingleses tentaram atravessar a ponte, mas foram atrasados ​​pela necessidade do exército passar pelo gargalo apresentado pela própria ponte.

Um enorme berserker Viking segurando um enorme machado de lâmina dupla bloqueou esta passagem estreita, segurando sozinho todo o exército saxão. O Anglo-Saxon Chronicle registra que ele matou até 40 ingleses. Ele foi finalmente derrotado quando um soldado anglo-saxão flutuou sob a ponte em um meio cano e enfiou sua longa lança nas ripas da ponte, ferindo-o mortalmente.

O atraso criado pelo beserker deu tempo para que o grosso do exército viking formasse uma parede de escudos, em forma de triângulo, contra o ataque inglês. O exército anglo-saxão derramou através da ponte e formou uma linha perto dos vikings, eles então travaram escudos e atacaram. A batalha foi feroz e sangrenta e durou horas.

Eventualmente, o exército Viking começou a se fragmentar e se quebrar, permitindo que os ingleses invadissem a parede de escudos. A luta feroz continuou durante toda a tarde. O enorme rei viking Hardrada, que, de acordo com as sagas, usava uma túnica e capacete azuis e empunhava uma espada de duas mãos, avançava à frente de seu exército e no verdadeiro estilo de cerco, desferia golpes devastadores em todos ao seu redor. À medida que o crepúsculo se aproximava, ele foi morto por uma flecha em sua traqueia. Tostig pegou a bandeira Viking Raven caída, "Land-Ravager" e continuou a reunir as tropas e lutar, mas foi morto.

Monumento à Batalha

Os vikings deixados para trás para proteger os navios em Ricall, liderados por Eystein Orri, noivo da filha de Hardrada e totalmente armado para a batalha, chegaram ao local e mergulharam na confusão. Seu contra-ataque, descrito na tradição Viking como "Tempestade de Orri", deteve brevemente o avanço inglês, mas logo foi vencido e o próprio Orri foi morto por um guerreiro saxão quando a escuridão caiu no campo de batalha.

Sem um líder para se reunir, os restos da força de invasão nórdica se separaram. O exército viking derrotado foi perseguido pelos ingleses, alguns dos nórdicos em fuga morreram afogados nos rios.

O local da ação inicial, para controle da ponte, foi localizado com segurança. A localização exata do campo de batalha principal em Stamford Bridge é, no entanto, difícil de determinar, dada a falta de descrição da paisagem nas fontes disponíveis. A área chamada 'Battle Flats' a sudeste da cidade é geralmente aceita como o local correto

Tantas pessoas morreram em uma pequena área que se diz que o campo ainda estava embranquecido com ossos branqueados 70 anos após a batalha. Harold aceitou uma trégua com os sobreviventes, que incluíam Olaf, filho de Hardrada, e Paul Thorfinnsson, conde de Orkney. Eles foram autorizados a partir pacificamente depois de prometerem não atacar a Inglaterra novamente.

Dos cerca de 200 navios com os quais os vikings chegaram, apenas cerca de 25 foram necessários para devolver os sobreviventes à Noruega. Eles se retiraram para Orkney, onde passaram o inverno, e na primavera Olaf voltou para a Noruega. Acredita-se que o corpo de Tostig foi levado para York e enterrado na Catedral de York. Um ano depois, o corpo de Hardrada foi transferido para a Noruega e enterrado na Igreja Mary em Nidaros (Trondheim).

A vitória de Harold foi, no entanto, de curta duração, enquanto comemorava sua vitória em um banquete em York, ele recebeu a notícia de que Guilherme da Normandia havia desembarcado em Sussex, na costa sul da Inglaterra, e correu para o sul para encontrá-lo, onde foi derrotado e morto na Batalha de Hastings em 14 de outubro. O fato de Harold ter que fazer uma marcha forçada para lutar contra Hardrada em Stamford Bridge e então mover-se rapidamente para o sul para enfrentar a invasão normanda, tudo em menos de três semanas, é amplamente visto como um fator primordial na vitória de William em Hastings.

Após sua morte em Stamford Bridge, acredita-se que o corpo de Tostig foi levado para York para ser enterrado na Catedral de York. Seus dois filhos se refugiaram na Noruega, enquanto sua esposa Judith se casou novamente com o duque Welf, da Baviera.


Conteúdo

Em 911, o governante carolíngio Carlos, o Simples, permitiu que um grupo de vikings se estabelecesse na Normandia sob seu líder Rollo. [1] Their settlement proved successful, [2] [b] and they quickly adapted to the indigenous culture, renouncing paganism, converting to Christianity, [3] and intermarrying with the local population. [4] Over time, the frontiers of the duchy expanded to the west. [5] In 1002, King Æthelred II married Emma, the sister of Richard II, Duke of Normandy. [6] Their son Edward the Confessor spent many years in exile in Normandy, and succeeded to the English throne in 1042. [7] This led to the establishment of a powerful Norman interest in English politics, as Edward drew heavily on his former hosts for support, bringing in Norman courtiers, soldiers, and clerics and appointing them to positions of power, particularly in the Church. Edward was childless and embroiled in conflict with the formidable Godwin, Earl of Wessex, and his sons, and he may also have encouraged Duke William of Normandy's ambitions for the English throne. [8]

Succession crisis in England

King Edward's death on 5 January 1066 [9] [c] left no clear heir, and several contenders laid claim to the throne of England. [11] Edward's immediate successor was the Earl of Wessex, Harold Godwinson, the richest and most powerful of the English aristocrats and son of Godwin, Edward's earlier opponent. Harold was elected king by the Witenagemot of England and crowned by Ealdred, the Archbishop of York, although Norman propaganda claimed that the ceremony was performed by Stigand, the uncanonically elected Archbishop of Canterbury. [11] [12] Harold was at once challenged by two powerful neighbouring rulers. Duke William claimed that he had been promised the throne by King Edward and that Harold had sworn agreement to this. [13] Harald Hardrada of Norway also contested the succession. His claim to the throne was based on an agreement between his predecessor Magnus the Good and the earlier King of England Harthacnut, whereby, if either died without heir, the other would inherit both England and Norway. [14] William and Harald Hardrada immediately set about assembling troops and ships for separate invasions. [15] [d]

Tostig and Hardrada's invasions

In early 1066, Harold's exiled brother Tostig Godwinson raided southeastern England with a fleet he had recruited in Flanders, later joined by other ships from Orkney. Threatened by Harold's fleet, Tostig moved north and raided in East Anglia and Lincolnshire. He was driven back to his ships by the brothers Edwin, Earl of Mercia and Morcar, Earl of Northumbria. Deserted by most of his followers, he withdrew to Scotland, where he spent the middle of the year recruiting fresh forces. [21] Hardrada invaded northern England in early September, leading a fleet of more than 300 ships carrying perhaps 15,000 men. Hardrada's army was further augmented by the forces of Tostig, who supported the Norwegian king's bid for the throne. Advancing on York, the Norwegians occupied the city after defeating a northern English army under Edwin and Morcar on 20 September at the Battle of Fulford. [22]

The English army was organised along regional lines, with the fyrd, or local levy, serving under a local magnate – whether an earl, bishop, or sheriff. [23] The fyrd was composed of men who owned their own land, and were equipped by their community to fulfil the king's demands for military forces. For every five hides, [24] or units of land nominally capable of supporting one household, [25] one man was supposed to serve. [24] It appears that the hundred was the main organising unit for the fyrd. [26] As a whole, England could furnish about 14,000 men for the fyrd, when it was called out. o fyrd usually served for two months, except in emergencies. It was rare for the whole national fyrd to be called out between 1046 and 1065 it was only done three times, in 1051, 1052, and 1065. [24] The king also had a group of personal armsmen, known as housecarls, who formed the backbone of the royal forces. Some earls also had their own forces of housecarls. Thegns, the local landowning elites, either fought with the royal housecarls or attached themselves to the forces of an earl or other magnate. [23] The fyrd and the housecarls both fought on foot, with the major difference between them being the housecarls' superior armour. The English army does not appear to have had a significant number of archers. [26]

Harold had spent mid-1066 on the south coast with a large army and fleet waiting for William to invade. The bulk of his forces were militia who needed to harvest their crops, so on 8 September Harold dismissed the militia and the fleet. [27] Learning of the Norwegian invasion he rushed north, gathering forces as he went, and took the Norwegians by surprise, defeating them at the Battle of Stamford Bridge on 25 September. Harald Hardrada and Tostig were killed, and the Norwegians suffered such great losses that only 24 of the original 300 ships were required to carry away the survivors. The English victory came at great cost, as Harold's army was left in a battered and weakened state, and far from the south. [28]

William assembled a large invasion fleet and an army gathered from Normandy and the rest of France, including large contingents from Brittany and Flanders. [30] He spent almost nine months on his preparations, as he had to construct a fleet from nothing. [e] According to some Norman chronicles, he also secured diplomatic support, although the accuracy of the reports has been a matter of historical debate. The most famous claim is that Pope Alexander II gave a papal banner as a token of support, which only appears in William of Poitiers's account, and not in more contemporary narratives. [33] In April 1066 Halley's Comet appeared in the sky, and was widely reported throughout Europe. Contemporary accounts connected the comet's appearance with the succession crisis in England. [34] [f]

William mustered his forces at Saint-Valery-sur-Somme, and was ready to cross the English Channel by about 12 August. [36] But the crossing was delayed, either because of unfavourable weather or to avoid being intercepted by the powerful English fleet. The Normans crossed to England a few days after Harold's victory over the Norwegians, following the dispersal of Harold's naval force, and landed at Pevensey in Sussex on 28 September. [30] [g] [h] A few ships were blown off course and landed at Romney, where the Normans fought the local fyrd. [32] After landing, William's forces built a wooden castle at Hastings, from which they raided the surrounding area. [30] More fortifications were erected at Pevensey. [51]

Norman forces at Hastings

The exact numbers and composition of William's force are unknown. [31] A contemporary document claims that William had 776 ships, but this may be an inflated figure. [52] Figures given by contemporary writers for the size of the army are highly exaggerated, varying from 14,000 to 150,000. [53] Modern historians have offered a range of estimates for the size of William's forces: 7,000–8,000 men, 1,000–2,000 of them cavalry [54] 10,000–12,000 men [53] 10,000 men, 3,000 of them cavalry [55] or 7,500 men. [31] The army consisted of cavalry, infantry, and archers or crossbowmen, with about equal numbers of cavalry and archers and the foot soldiers equal in number to the other two types combined. [56] Later lists of companions of William the Conqueror are extant, but most are padded with extra names only about 35 named individuals can be reliably identified as having been with William at Hastings. [31] [57] [i]

The main armour used was chainmail hauberks, usually knee-length, with slits to allow riding, some with sleeves to the elbows. Some hauberks may have been made of scales attached to a tunic, with the scales made of metal, horn or hardened leather. Headgear was usually a conical metal helmet with a band of metal extending down to protect the nose. [59] Horsemen and infantry carried shields. The infantryman's shield was usually round and made of wood, with reinforcement of metal. Horsemen had changed to a kite-shaped shield and were usually armed with a lance. The couched lance, carried tucked against the body under the right arm, was a relatively new refinement and was probably not used at Hastings the terrain was unfavourable for long cavalry charges. Both the infantry and cavalry usually fought with a straight sword, long and double-edged. The infantry could also use javelins and long spears. [60] Some of the cavalry may have used a mace instead of a sword. Archers would have used a self bow or a crossbow, and most would not have had armour. [61]

After defeating his brother Tostig and Harald Hardrada in the north, Harold left much of his forces in the north, including Morcar and Edwin, and marched the rest of his army south to deal with the threatened Norman invasion. [62] It is unclear when Harold learned of William's landing, but it was probably while he was travelling south. Harold stopped in London, and was there for about a week before Hastings, so it is likely that he spent about a week on his march south, averaging about 27 mi (43 km) per day, [63] for the approximately 200 mi (320 km). [64] Harold camped at Caldbec Hill on the night of 13 October, near what was described as a "hoar-apple tree". This location was about 8 mi (13 km) from William's castle at Hastings. [65] [j] Some of the early contemporary French accounts mention an emissary or emissaries sent by Harold to William, which is likely. Nothing came of these efforts. [66]

Although Harold attempted to surprise the Normans, William's scouts reported the English arrival to the duke. The exact events preceding the battle are obscure, with contradictory accounts in the sources, but all agree that William led his army from his castle and advanced towards the enemy. [66] Harold had taken a defensive position at the top of Senlac Hill (present-day Battle, East Sussex), about 6 mi (9.7 km) from William's castle at Hastings. [67]

English forces at Hastings

The exact number of soldiers in Harold's army is unknown. The contemporary records do not give reliable figures some Norman sources give 400,000 to 1,200,000 men on Harold's side. [k] The English sources generally give very low figures for Harold's army, perhaps to make the English defeat seem less devastating. [69] Recent historians have suggested figures of between 5,000 and 13,000 for Harold's army at Hastings, [70] and most modern historians argue for a figure of 7,000–8,000 English troops. [26] [71] These men would have been a mix of the fyrd and housecarls. Few individual Englishmen are known to have been at Hastings [31] about 20 named individuals can reasonably be assumed to have fought with Harold at Hastings, including Harold's brothers Gyrth and Leofwine and two other relatives. [58] [l]

The English army consisted entirely of infantry. It is possible that some of the higher class members of the army rode to battle, but when battle was joined they dismounted to fight on foot. [m] The core of the army was made up of housecarls, full-time professional soldiers. Their armour consisted of a conical helmet, a mail hauberk, and a shield, which might be either kite-shaped or round. [72] Most housecarls fought with the two-handed Danish battleaxe, but they could also carry a sword. [73] The rest of the army was made up of levies from the fyrd, also infantry but more lightly armoured and not professionals. Most of the infantry would have formed part of the shield wall, in which all the men in the front ranks locked their shields together. Behind them would have been axemen and men with javelins as well as archers. [74]

Background and location

Because many of the primary accounts contradict each other at times, it is impossible to provide a description of the battle that is beyond dispute. [75] The only undisputed facts are that the fighting began at 9 am on Saturday 14 October 1066 and that the battle lasted until dusk. [76] Sunset on the day of the battle was at 4:54 pm, with the battlefield mostly dark by 5:54 pm and in full darkness by 6:24 pm. Moonrise that night was not until 11:12 pm, so once the sun set, there was little light on the battlefield. [77] William of Jumièges reports that Duke William kept his army armed and ready against a surprise night attack for the entire night before. [75] The battle took place 7 mi (11 km) north of Hastings at the present-day town of Battle, [78] between two hills – Caldbec Hill to the north and Telham Hill to the south. The area was heavily wooded, with a marsh nearby. [79] The name traditionally given to the battle is unusual – there were several settlements much closer to the battlefield than Hastings. o Anglo-Saxon Chronicle called it the battle "at the hoary apple tree". Within 40 years, the battle was described by the Anglo-Norman chronicler Orderic Vitalis as "Senlac", [n] a Norman-French adaptation of the Old English word "Sandlacu", which means "sandy water". [o] This may have been the name of the stream that crosses the battlefield. [p] The battle was already being referred to as "bellum Hasestingas" or "Battle of Hastings" by 1086, in the Domesday Book. [83]

Sunrise was at 6:48 am that morning, and reports of the day record that it was unusually bright. [84] The weather conditions are not recorded. [85] The route that the English army took south to the battlefield is not known precisely. Several roads are possible: one, an old Roman road that ran from Rochester to Hastings has long been favoured because of a large coin hoard found nearby in 1876. Another possibility is the Roman road between London and Lewes and then over local tracks to the battlefield. [75] Some accounts of the battle indicate that the Normans advanced from Hastings to the battlefield, but the contemporary account of William of Jumièges places the Normans at the site of the battle the night before. [86] Most historians incline towards the former view, [67] [84] [87] [88] but M. K. Lawson argues that William of Jumièges's account is correct. [86]

Dispositions of forces and tactics

Harold's forces deployed in a small, dense formation at the top of steep slope, [84] with their flanks protected by woods and marshy ground in front of them. [88] The line may have extended far enough to be anchored on a nearby stream. [89] The English formed a shield wall, with the front ranks holding their shields close together or even overlapping to provide protection from attack. [90] Sources differ on the exact site that the English fought on: some sources state the site of the abbey, [91] [92] [93] but some newer sources suggest it was Caldbec Hill. [89] [84]

More is known about the Norman deployment. [94] Duke William appears to have arranged his forces in three groups, or "battles", which roughly corresponded to their origins. The left units were the Bretons, [95] along with those from Anjou, Poitou and Maine. This division was led by Alan the Red, a relative of the Breton count. [90] The centre was held by the Normans, [95] under the direct command of the duke and with many of his relatives and kinsmen grouped around the ducal party. [90] The final division, on the right, consisted of the Frenchmen, [95] along with some men from Picardy, Boulogne, and Flanders. The right was commanded by William fitzOsbern and Count Eustace II of Boulogne. [90] The front lines were made up of archers, with a line of foot soldiers armed with spears behind. [95] There were probably a few crossbowmen and slingers in with the archers. [90] The cavalry was held in reserve, [95] and a small group of clergymen and servants situated at the base of Telham Hill was not expected to take part in the fighting. [90]

William's disposition of his forces implies that he planned to open the battle with archers in the front rank weakening the enemy with arrows, followed by infantry who would engage in close combat. The infantry would create openings in the English lines that could be exploited by a cavalry charge to break through the English forces and pursue the fleeing soldiers. [90]

Beginning of the battle

The battle opened with the Norman archers shooting uphill at the English shield wall, to little effect. The uphill angle meant that the arrows either bounced off the shields of the English or overshot their targets and flew over the top of the hill. [95] [q] The lack of English archers hampered the Norman archers, as there were few English arrows to be gathered up and reused. [96] After the attack from the archers, William sent the spearmen forward to attack the English. They were met with a barrage of missiles, not arrows but spears, axes and stones. [95] The infantry was unable to force openings in the shield wall, and the cavalry advanced in support. [96] The cavalry also failed to make headway, and a general retreat began, blamed on the Breton division on William's left. [97] A rumour started that the duke had been killed, which added to the confusion. The English forces began to pursue the fleeing invaders, but William rode through his forces, showing his face and yelling that he was still alive. [98] The duke then led a counter-attack against the pursuing English forces some of the English rallied on a hillock before being overwhelmed. [97]

It is not known whether the English pursuit was ordered by Harold or if it was spontaneous. Wace relates that Harold ordered his men to stay in their formations but no other account gives this detail. The Bayeux Tapestry depicts the death of Harold's brothers Gyrth and Leofwine occurring just before the fight around the hillock. This may mean that the two brothers led the pursuit. [99] The Carmen de Hastingae Proelio relates a different story for the death of Gyrth, stating that the duke slew Harold's brother in combat, perhaps thinking that Gyrth was Harold. William of Poitiers states that the bodies of Gyrth and Leofwine were found near Harold's, implying that they died late in the battle. It is possible that if the two brothers died early in the fighting their bodies were taken to Harold, thus accounting for their being found near his body after the battle. The military historian Peter Marren speculates that if Gyrth and Leofwine died early in the battle, that may have influenced Harold to stand and fight to the end. [100]

Feigned flights

A lull probably occurred early in the afternoon, and a break for rest and food would probably have been needed. [99] William may have also needed time to implement a new strategy, which may have been inspired by the English pursuit and subsequent rout by the Normans. If the Normans could send their cavalry against the shield wall and then draw the English into more pursuits, breaks in the English line might form. [101] William of Poitiers says the tactic was used twice. Although arguments have been made that the chroniclers' accounts of this tactic were meant to excuse the flight of the Norman troops from battle, this is unlikely as the earlier flight was not glossed over. It was a tactic used by other Norman armies during the period. [99] [r] Some historians have argued that the story of the use of feigned flight as a deliberate tactic was invented after the battle however most historians agree that it was used by the Normans at Hastings. [102]

Although the feigned flights did not break the lines, they probably thinned out the housecarls in the English shield wall. The housecarls were replaced with members of the fyrd, and the shield wall held. [99] Archers appear to have been used again before and during an assault by the cavalry and infantry led by the duke. Although 12th-century sources state that the archers were ordered to shoot at a high angle to shoot over the front of the shield wall, there is no trace of such an action in the more contemporary accounts. [103] It is not known how many assaults were launched against the English lines, but some sources record various actions by both Normans and Englishmen that took place during the afternoon's fighting. [104] The Carmen claims that Duke William had two horses killed under him during the fighting, but William of Poitiers's account states that it was three. [105]

Death of Harold

Harold appears to have died late in the battle, although accounts in the various sources are contradictory. William of Poitiers only mentions his death, without giving any details on how it occurred. The Tapestry is not helpful, as it shows a figure holding an arrow sticking out of his eye next to a falling fighter being hit with a sword. Over both figures is a statement "Here King Harold has been killed". [103] It is not clear which figure is meant to be Harold, or if both are meant. [107] [s] The earliest written mention of the traditional account of Harold dying from an arrow to the eye dates to the 1080s from a history of the Normans written by an Italian monk, Amatus of Montecassino. [108] [t] William of Malmesbury stated that Harold died from an arrow to the eye that went into the brain, and that a knight wounded Harold at the same time. Wace repeats the arrow-to-the-eye account. o Carmen states that Duke William killed Harold, but this is unlikely, as such a feat would have been recorded elsewhere. [103] The account of William of Jumièges is even more unlikely, as it has Harold dying in the morning, during the first fighting. o Chronicle of Battle Abbey states that no one knew who killed Harold, as it happened in the press of battle. [110] A modern biographer of Harold, Ian Walker, states that Harold probably died from an arrow in the eye, although he also says it is possible that Harold was struck down by a Norman knight while mortally wounded in the eye. [111] Another biographer of Harold, Peter Rex, after discussing the various accounts, concludes that it is not possible to declare how Harold died. [109]

Harold's death left the English forces leaderless, and they began to collapse. [101] Many of them fled, but the soldiers of the royal household gathered around Harold's body and fought to the end. [103] The Normans began to pursue the fleeing troops, and except for a rearguard action at a site known as the "Malfosse", the battle was over. [101] Exactly what happened at the Malfosse, or "Evil Ditch", and where it took place, is unclear. It occurred at a small fortification or set of trenches where some Englishmen rallied and seriously wounded Eustace of Boulogne before being defeated by the Normans. [112]

Reasons for the outcome

Harold's defeat was probably due to several circumstances. One was the need to defend against two almost simultaneous invasions. The fact that Harold had dismissed his forces in southern England on 8 September also contributed to the defeat. Many historians fault Harold for hurrying south and not gathering more forces before confronting William at Hastings, although it is not clear that the English forces were insufficient to deal with William's forces. [113] Against these arguments for an exhausted English army, the length of the battle, which lasted an entire day, shows that the English forces were not tired by their long march. [114] Tied in with the speed of Harold's advance to Hastings is the possibility Harold may not have trusted Earls Edwin of Mercia and Morcar of Northumbria once their enemy Tostig had been defeated, and declined to bring them and their forces south. [113] Modern historians have pointed out that one reason for Harold's rush to battle was to contain William's depredations and keep him from breaking free of his beachhead. [115]

Most of the blame for the defeat probably lies in the events of the battle. [113] William was the more experienced military leader, [116] and in addition the lack of cavalry on the English side allowed Harold fewer tactical options. [114] Some writers have criticised Harold for not exploiting the opportunity offered by the rumoured death of William early in the battle. [117] The English appear to have erred in not staying strictly on the defensive, for when they pursued the retreating Normans they exposed their flanks to attack. Whether this was due to the inexperience of the English commanders or the indiscipline of the English soldiers is unclear. [116] [u] In the end, Harold's death appears to have been decisive, as it signalled the break-up of the English forces in disarray. [114] The historian David Nicolle said of the battle that William's army "demonstrated – not without difficulty – the superiority of Norman-French mixed cavalry and infantry tactics over the Germanic-Scandinavian infantry traditions of the Anglo-Saxons." [119]

The day after the battle, Harold's body was identified, either by his armour or by marks on his body. [v] His personal standard was presented to William, [120] and later sent to the papacy. [103] The bodies of the English dead, including some of Harold's brothers and housecarls, were left on the battlefield, [121] although some were removed by relatives later. [122] The Norman dead were buried in a large communal grave, which has not been found. [123] [w] Exact casualty figures are unknown. Of the Englishmen known to be at the battle, the number of dead implies that the death rate was about 50 per cent of those engaged, although this may be too high. Of the named Normans who fought at Hastings, one in seven is stated to have died, but these were all noblemen, and it is probable that the death rate among the common soldiers was higher. Although Orderic Vitalis's figures are highly exaggerated, [x] his ratio of one in four casualties may be accurate. Marren speculates that perhaps 2,000 Normans and 4,000 Englishmen were killed at Hastings. [124] Reports stated that some of the English dead were still being found on the hillside years later. Although scholars thought for a long time that remains would not be recoverable, due to the acidic soil, recent finds have changed this view. [125] One skeleton that was found in a medieval cemetery, and originally was thought to be associated with the 13th century Battle of Lewes, now is thought to be associated with Hastings instead. [126] [y]

One story relates that Gytha, Harold's mother, offered the victorious duke the weight of her son's body in gold for its custody, but was refused. William ordenou que o corpo de Harold fosse jogado ao mar, mas não está claro se isso aconteceu. [121] Another story relates that Harold was buried at the top of a cliff. [123] Waltham Abbey, which had been founded by Harold, later claimed that his body had been secretly buried there. [121] Other legends claimed that Harold did not die at Hastings, but escaped and became a hermit at Chester. [122]

William expected to receive the submission of the surviving English leaders after his victory, but instead Edgar the Ætheling [z] was proclaimed king by the Witenagemot, with the support of Earls Edwin and Morcar, Stigand, the Archbishop of Canterbury, and Ealdred, the Archbishop of York. [128] William therefore advanced on London, marching around the coast of Kent. He defeated an English force that attacked him at Southwark but was unable to storm London Bridge, forcing him to reach the capital by a more circuitous route. [129]

William moved up the Thames valley to cross the river at Wallingford, where he received the submission of Stigand. He then travelled north-east along the Chilterns, before advancing towards London from the north-west, [aa] fighting further engagements against forces from the city. The English leaders surrendered to William at Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire. Guilherme foi aclamado rei da Inglaterra e coroado por Ealdred em 25 de dezembro de 1066, na Abadia de Westminster. [129]

Apesar da submissão dos nobres ingleses, a resistência continuou por vários anos. [131] There were rebellions in Exeter in late 1067, an invasion by Harold's sons in mid-1068, and an uprising in Northumbria in 1068. [132] In 1069 William faced more troubles from Northumbrian rebels, an invading Danish fleet, and rebellions in the south and west of England. He ruthlessly put down the various risings, culminating in the Harrying of the North in late 1069 and early 1070 that devastated parts of northern England. [133] A further rebellion in 1070 by Hereward the Wake was also defeated by the king, at Ely. [134]

Battle Abbey was founded by William at the site of the battle. According to 12th-century sources, William made a vow to found the abbey, and the high altar of the church was placed at the site where Harold had died. [101] More likely, the foundation was imposed on William by papal legates in 1070. [135] The topography of the battlefield has been altered by subsequent construction work for the abbey, and the slope defended by the English is now much less steep than it was at the time of the battle the top of the ridge has also been built up and levelled. [78] After the Dissolution of the Monasteries, the abbey's lands passed to secular landowners, who used it as a residence or country house. [136] In 1976 the estate was put up for sale and purchased by the government with the aid of some American donors who wished to honour the 200th anniversary of American independence. [137] The battlefield and abbey grounds are currently owned and administered by English Heritage and are open to the public. [138] The Bayeux Tapestry is an embroidered narrative of the events leading up to Hastings probably commissioned by Odo of Bayeux soon after the battle, perhaps to hang at the bishop's palace at Bayeux. [139] [ab] In modern times annual reenactments of the Battle of Hastings have drawn thousands of participants and spectators to the site of the original battle. [141] [142]


The Anglo-French War (1202-1214) watered down the Norman influence as English Normans became English and French Normans became French. Now, no-one was just ‘Norman’. As its people and settlements were assumed into these two larger kingdoms, the idea of a Norman civilisation disappeared.

He himself paid for the foundation of Battle Abbey on the spot where Harold fell. The body of Harold was eventually recovered after a long search, but its face was so badly disfigured that they had to bring it to his concubine, Edith Swan-neck, to identify by the intimate marks upon his body.


Battle of Stamford Bridge

A mere five days after the defeat of the northern English forces at Fulford Gate near York, Harald Hardrada and the traitor Tostig, King Harold Godwineson of England s own brother, had to fight a second battle. King Harold and his army had amazingly covered something like 180 miles in just four days, winning them the priceless element of surprise.

Hardrada had left York to rally at Stamford Bridge, a crossing point of the Derwent, and had sent 1,000 of his men back to Ricall to secure the fleet. On the day of the battle the weather was warm, and the Vikings were resting without armour when the English army arrived.

A furious defence of the crossing over the Derwent held the estimated 8,000 English at bay while the outnumbered Vikings dressed for battle in confusion, many failing to find their armour and helmets. Legend has a giant Norse axe-man holding the bridge like a berserker Horatio, until he was speared from beneath.

The Vikings formed a shield-wall, some sources say in a circle, others in a pointed formation. Before battle was joined Harold Godwineson rode between the armies, calling for his brother Tostig to come over to him, and be given his old lands back. Tostig declined.

Hardrada fought in the front ranks, paying for his bravery with a fatal arrow through his throat. Tostig was again begged to return to the fold. Again he declined. He rallied the invaders, but was killed before the arrival of reinforcements from Riccal whose counter-attack came too late and too lightly armed, many of the soldiers having jettisoned heavier equipment in the dash from Riccal under a hot sun.

The counter-attack degenerated into a rout as the remaining Vikings ran for their ships at Riccal.

A multitude of Viking warrior-chiefs died in the battle and its aftermath, and Hardrada s son Olaf was forced to accept a truce on the 26th, swearing never to attack England again before being allowed to sail back to Norway. This time though it is said the Vikings, who had arrived in 200 or possibly up to 300 ships only needed a tenth of the number to return the survivors. Ignominiously Hardrada s body was left in England.

King Harold Godwineson had ended one threat to England, but another and better organised one was about to land on the south coast as the wind, real and metaphorical, was changing.

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From Carmen on 27th November 2012
How many miles did Harold's troops have to march? How many days did it take for Harold and his men to march south from Stamford Bridge?

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Battle of Stamford Bridge

The Battle of Stamford Bridge took place at the village of Stamford Bridge, East Riding of Yorkshire in England on 25 September 1066, between an English army under King Harold Godwinson and an invading Norwegian force led by King Harald Hardrada and the English king's brother Tostig Godwinson. After a bloody and horrific battle, both Hardrada and Tostig along with most of the Norwegians were killed. Although Harold Godwinson repelled the Norwegian invaders, his victory was short-lived: he was defeated and killed by the Normans at Hastings less than three weeks later. The battle has traditionally been presented as symbolising the end of the Viking Age, although major Scandinavian campaigns in Britain and Ireland occurred in the following decades, such as those of King Sweyn Estrithson of Denmark in 1069–70 and King Magnus Barefoot of Norway in 1098 and 1102–03.

Fundo

The death of King Edward the Confessor of England in January 1066 had triggered a succession struggle in which a variety of contenders from across north-western Europe fought for the English throne. These claimants included the King of Norway, Harald Sigurdsson. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle Manuscript D (p. 197), [ 1 ] the Norwegians assembled a fleet of 300 ships to invade England. The authors, however, did not seem to differentiate between warships and supply ships. In King Harald's Saga , Snorri Sturluson states, ". it is said that King Harald had over two hundred ships, apart from supply ships and smaller craft.” (p. 139) [ 2 ] Combined with reinforcements received in Orkney, the Norwegian army most likely numbered between 7,000 to 9,000 men. Arriving off the English coast in September he was joined by further forces recruited in Flanders and Scotland by Tostig Godwinson. [ 3 ] Tostig was at odds with his elder brother Harold (who had been elected king), having been ousted from his position as Earl of Northumbria and exiled in 1065, and had mounted a series of abortive attacks on England in the spring of 1066. [ 4 ] In the late summer of 1066, the invaders sailed up the Ouse before advancing on York. Outside the city they defeated a northern English army led by Edwin, Earl of Mercia and his brother Morcar, Earl of Northumbria at the Battle of Fulford on 20 September. Following this victory they received the surrender of York. Having briefly occupied the city and taken hostages and supplies from the city they returned to their ships at Riccall. They offered peace to the Northumbrians in exchange for their support for Harald's bid for the throne, and demanded further hostages from the whole of Yorkshire. [ 5 ]

At this time King Harold was in Southern England, anticipating an invasion from France by William, Duke of Normandy, another contender for the English throne. Learning of the Norwegian invasion he headed north at great speed with his houscarls and as many thegns as he could gather, travelling day and night. He made the journey from London to Yorkshire, a distance of about 185 miles, in only four days, enabling him to take the Norwegians completely by surprise. Having learned that Northumbrians had been ordered to send the additional hostages and supplies to the Norwegians at Stamford Bridge, Harold hurried on through York to attack them at this rendezvous on 25 September. [ 6 ] Until the English army came into view the invaders remained unaware of the presence of a hostile army anywhere in the vicinity.

Localização

There is some controversy as to whether or not a village and bridge existed at the time of the battle. One theory holds that there was no village at Stamford Bridge in 1066 and not even in 1086 when the Domesday Book was compiled. According to this theory, the name is locative and descriptive of crossing points over the River Derwent being derived from a combination of the words stone, ford and bridge i.e. stoneford and bridge. At the location of the present village, within the river bed, there is an outcrop of stone over which the river once flowed as a mini-waterfall. At low water levels one could easily cross over the river at this point, either on foot or horseback.

An alternative explanation is given by Darby and Maxwell [ 7 ] who state, "Stamford Bridge does, in fact, exemplify that small number of places which, though not mentioned in the Domesday Book, must have existed, or at any rate been named, in Domesday times because they appear in both pre-Domesday and post-Domesday documents." Most likely the Stamford Bridge lands were included with Low Catton and therefore were not mentioned in the Domesday Book. As for the presence of a bridge, manuscripts C, D and E of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle all mention Stamford Bridge by name. Manuscript C contains a passage which states ". came upon them beyond the bridge . ". [ 8 ] Henry of Huntington [ 9 ] mentions Stamford Bridge and describes part of the battle being fought across the bridge. Therefore, a bridge over the Derwent most likely did exist at this time.

One mile to the south along the River Derwent at Scoreby lies the site of a 1st to 4th century Roman settlement known as Derventio. The town runs for two and a half miles east/west alongside a Roman road. Occupying both east and west banks of the river, the town was connected by the construction of a bridge which carried the road. There is no archaeological evidence for a Roman bridge construction at or near the present site of Stamford Bridge.

It is possible that there may have been a two-pronged attack by Godwinson on Hardrada's army, making use of both the ford and perhaps the remnants of the earlier Roman bridge one mile to the south, information of which, and of the two road routes to the location from York, could have been gathered from Godwinson's earlier occupation of the city of York. However, no documentation exists to support this possibility.

Topographically, on the east bank of the river from the bridge crossing point, the land rises sharply up to 100 feet at High Catton. This is the only high ground around and a good defensive position for Hardrada's army caught out by Godwinson's sudden appearance on the skyline, as he rounded the ridge at Gate Helmsley to drop downhill swiftly onto Hardrada's unsuspecting army.

Batalha

The exact location of the Stamford Bridge battlefield is not known. Local tradition places the battlefield location east of the River Derwent and just southeast of the town in an area known as Battle Flats. The location of the Norwegian army at the start of the battle is crucial to understanding the subsequent actions both of Harald Sigurdsson and Harold Godwinson. Accounts of their location differ, depending on sources and interpretations. A common view is that the Norwegian army was divided in two with some of their troops on the west side of the River Derwent and the bulk of their army on the east side. Another interpretation is that they were just leaving Stamford Bridge and moving along the old Roman road toward York (west side of the River Derwent). [ 10 ] Regardless of their actual location, they did not expect the arrival of the English army.

The sudden appearance of the English army caught the Norwegians by surprise. [ 11 ] Their response was to rapidly deploy in a defensive circle. [ 12 ] If the Norwegians were located at Battle Flats, there is no good explanation as to why they deployed into this formation. However, if they were located on the east side of the Derwent, the deployment made perfect sense. By the time the bulk of the English army had arrived, the Vikings on the west side were either slain or fleeing across the bridge. The English advance was then delayed by the need to pass through the choke-point presented by the bridge. A later folk story has it that a giant Norse axeman (possibly armed with a Dane Axe) blocked the narrow crossing, and single-handedly held up the entire English army. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle states that this axeman cut down up to 40 Englishmen. He was only defeated when an English soldier floated under the bridge in a half-barrel and thrust his spear through the laths in the bridge, mortally wounding the axeman. [ 13 ]

This delay had allowed the bulk of the Norse army to form a shieldwall to face the English attack. Harold's army poured across the bridge, forming a line just short of the Norse army, locked shields and charged. The battle went far beyond the bridge itself, and although it raged for hours the Norse army's decision to leave their armour behind left them at a distinct disadvantage. Eventually, the Norse army began to fragment and fracture, allowing the English troops to force their way in and break up the Scandinavians' shield wall. Completely outflanked, Hardrada at this point was killed with an arrow to his wind pipe and Tostig slain, the Norwegian army disintegrated and was virtually annihilated. [ 14 ]

In the later stages of the battle, the Norwegians were reinforced by troops who had been left behind to guard the ships at Riccall, led by Øystein Orre, Hardrada's daughter's fiancé. Some of his men were said to have collapsed and died of exhaustion upon reaching the battlefield. These men, unlike their comrades, were fully armed for battle. Their counter-attack, described in the Norwegian tradition as "Orre's Storm", briefly checked the English advance, but was soon overwhelmed and Orre was slain. The Norwegian army routed, pursued by the English army, some of the fleeing Norsemen drowned in the rivers. [ 15 ]

So many died in an area so small that the field was said to have been still whitened with bleached bones 50 years after the battle. [16]

Rescaldo

King Harold accepted a truce with the surviving Norwegians, including Harald's son Olaf and Paul Thorfinnsson, Earl of Orkney. They were allowed to leave after giving pledges not to attack England again. The losses the Norwegians had suffered were so horrific that only 24 ships from the fleet of over 300 were needed to carry the survivors away. [ 15 ] They withdrew to Orkney, where they spent the winter, and in the spring Olaf returned to Norway. The kingdom was then divided and shared between him and his brother Magnus, whom Harald had left behind to govern in his absence. [17]

Three days after the battle, on 28 September, the Normans under William II landed on the south coast of England. King Harold had to rush his battered, weary army south to meet the new invasion. Less than three weeks after Stamford Bridge, on 14 October, Harold was defeated and killed at the Battle of Hastings, beginning the Norman Conquest of England, and ending the Anglo-Saxon era. So many English senior Thegns and lesser noblemen died at Stamford Bridge and Hastings that it was difficult for the Anglo-Saxons to resist their new Norman lords there were no leaders with standing to rally around.



Comentários:

  1. Mekinos

    Não vai de graça.

  2. Akikora

    Certamente. Tudo acima disse a verdade. Podemos nos comunicar sobre este tema. Aqui ou em PM.

  3. Lamaan

    Na minha opinião, eles estão errados. Vamos tentar discutir isso. Escreva para mim em PM, ele fala com você.

  4. Ektor

    É incrível!

  5. Cromwell

    É uma pena que eu não possa me expressar agora - é muito tomada. Eu voltarei - vou expressar absolutamente a opinião.

  6. Rainer

    Existem outras desvantagens também



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