Ambos os lados golpeados em Germantown

Ambos os lados golpeados em Germantown



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Em 4 de outubro de 1777, 11.000 patriotas sob o comando do general George Washington tentam um ataque matinal contra as 9.000 tropas britânicas do general britânico William Howe em Germantown, Pensilvânia, cinco milhas ao norte da capital, Filadélfia, ocupada pelos britânicos.

As forças continentais de Washington eram mal treinadas, mal alimentadas e mal vestidas. Mesmo assim, Washington os considerou prontos para lutar e planejou enviar quatro colunas para a batalha com pedaços de papel branco enfiados em seus chapéus para ajudá-los a se identificarem na escuridão do início da manhã. O plano elaborado de Washington foi jogado em desordem, no entanto, quando duas colunas se perderam na forte neblina matinal. Por volta das 10h, a batalha acabou. Embora os americanos tenham sido forçados a uma retirada, ambos os lados sofreram pesadas perdas - 152 mortos, 521 feridos e 400 capturados pelos Patriots e 71 mortos, 450 feridos e 14 desaparecidos pelos britânicos - e a batalha demonstrou as habilidades estratégicas de Washington.

Depois de Germantown, o general Washington liderou suas forças para as colinas próximas do que hoje é Whitemarsh Township, ao norte da Filadélfia, onde se envolveram em mais escaramuças contra as tropas do general Howe em 6 a 8 de dezembro, antes de seguirem para os quartéis de inverno em Valley Forge, Pensilvânia. , em 19 de dezembro.

Friedrich, Freiherr von Steuben, chegou ao acampamento do General Washington em Valley Forge em 23 de fevereiro de 1778. O oficial militar prussiano começou a treinar soldados em exercícios de ordem próxima, incutindo nova confiança e disciplina no desmoralizado Exército Continental. Com base no mérito de seus esforços em Valley Forge, Washington recomendou que von Steuben fosse nomeado inspetor-geral do Exército Continental; O Congresso obedeceu. Nesta nova função, von Steuben propagou seus métodos por todas as forças patriotas, distribuindo seu "Livro Azul", intitulado "Regulamentos para a Ordem e Disciplina das Tropas dos Estados Unidos".

LEIA MAIS: 11 fatos pouco conhecidos sobre George Washington


Ordens gerais para atacar Germantown

As tropas devem estar prontas para marchar esta noite às seis horas.

As divisões de Sullivan & amp Wayne para formar a ala direita e atacar a esquerda do inimigo devem marchar pela estrada Monatany1 — As divisões de Green e amp Stephen para formar a ala esquerda e atacar a direita do inimigo devem marchar pela estrada Skippack.2 O General Conway deve marchar em frente às tropas que compõem a ala direita e fila para atacar o flanco esquerdo do inimigo. O General McDougall deve marchar na frente das tropas que compõem a ala esquerda e partir para atacar o flanco direito do inimigo.3

As brigadas do General Nash e do General Maxwell formam o corpo de reserva e são comandadas pelo Major General Lord Stirling. O Corps De reserve para passar pela estrada Skippack.

General Armstrong para passar pela estrada do cume [& amp] passar pela taberna de Leverings e levar guias para cruzar o riacho Wessahiecon subindo4 a cabeceira da barragem de John Vandeering, de modo a cair sobre a nova casa de Joseph Warner.5

Smallwood e Forman passam pela estrada por uma antiga fábrica de Danl Morris e Jacob Edges na estrada de White pântano na pista de Sandy: daí a White pântano Church, onde pegue a estrada da esquerda, que leva à taverna de Jenkin no estrada de velha york, abaixo de Armitages, além da pedra de sete milhas a meia milha da qual [uma estrada] faz uma curva fechada para a direita, cercada em ambos os lados, que leva através do acampamento inimigo até o mercado municipal alemão.6

General McDougall para atacar a direita do inimigo no flanco. General Smallwood & amp forman para atacar a ala direita no flanco e amp traseiro. General Conway para atacar o flanco esquerdo do inimigo e o General Armstrong para atacar sua ala esquerda no flanco e na retaguarda.

A milícia que deve atuar nos flancos não deve ter canhões.

Deixar mochilas e mantas, os homens devem levar suas provisões em suas mochilas, ou de qualquer outra maneira menos inconveniente.

Todos os pioneiros de cada divisão que estão aptos a marchar devem se mover na frente de suas respectivas divisões, com todos os machados que puderem reunir.

Piquetes à esquerda do moinho de Vanderin para serem retirados por Armstrong: um na casa de Allen no Monte Airey por Sullivan — Um em Lucans Mill por Greene.

Cada Coluna se disponha a atacar os piquetes em suas respectivas rotas, precisamente às cinco horas, com baionetas carregadas e sem disparos, e as colunas avancem para o ataque o mais rápido possível.

As Colunas se esforçam para chegar a duas milhas dos piquetes do inimigo em suas respectivas rotas por duas OClock e lá param até as quatro e se dispõem a atacar os piquetes no momento acima mencionado.

The Columns of Cont: tropas e milícias para se comunicarem de vez em quando em um cavalo leve.

Partes de flanco adequadas devem ser mantidas fora de cada coluna.

O tenente James McMichael da divisão de Greene escreveu em seu diário de 3 de outubro: "Esta manhã, ordens foram emitidas para que as tropas fossem fornecidas com provisões para dois dias, e cada homem servido com quarenta cartuchos de munição. Ao meio-dia, os enfermos foram enviados a Belém, o que indica que se pretendia um ataque repentino. Às 6 da tarde. todo o exército marchou, com a divisão do Gen. Greene no avanço ”((“ Diário de McMichael ”, descrição começa William P. McMichael.“ Diário do Tenente James McMichael, da Linha da Pensilvânia, 1776-1778. ”Revista de História da Pensilvânia e Biografia 16 (1892): 129-59. A descrição termina em 152).

As seguintes ordens gerais de 3 de outubro, assinadas por Timothy Pickering como ajudante geral, aparecem no livro ordenado de Muhlenberg: “Vinte homens de cada Brigada que não estão preparados para suportar as fadigas de uma marcha por falta de sapatos ou com um sub . de cada Brigada, para desfilar no Parque da Artilharia às 5 horas desta tarde. Dois Oficiais de campo estarão lá para assumir o Comando deles, que receberão suas instruções do General Major do Dia. Três carroças vazias de cada Brigada com bons cavalos para desfilar na Estrada na retaguarda da Linha 2d e avançar na retaguarda quando o Exército marchar.

“Todo o Exército deve estar armado esta noite às 6 horas, eles devem deixar suas mochilas, cobertores e tudo, exceto armas, munições e acessórios que devem levar em seus Habersacks, tal como os Habersacks não devem levar sua provisão em seus bolsos, ou de outra maneira que possa ser mais conveniente. Todos os Pioneiros de cada Divisão Regt & amp que estão aptos para marchar devem avançar na frente de suas respectivas Divisões com todos os Machados que puderem reunir ”(“ Livro Ordenado de Muhlenberg, ”a descrição começa“ Livro Ordenado do Gen. John Peter Gabriel Muhlenberg, 26 de março a 20 de dezembro de 1777. ”Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 33 (1909): 257-78, 454-74 34 (1910): 21-40, 166-89, 336-60, 438-77 35 (1911) ): 59–89, 156–87, 290–303. A descrição termina em 35:63).

Pickering diz em seu diário de 3 de outubro: “As tropas estavam prontas para a marcha, com a intenção de atacar o inimigo na manhã seguinte. À noite, por volta das oito horas, as tropas estavam em marcha, na seguinte disposição: General Sullivan, comandando a ala direita, deveria descer, com suas divisões e de Wayne, na estrada direta para Germantown, precedida por A brigada de Conway, que deveria retirar o piquete do inimigo, seguiria para a direita e cairia sobre o flanco esquerdo e a retaguarda do inimigo, enquanto as divisões de Sullivan e Wayne os atacavam pela frente. As brigadas de Maxwell e da Carolina do Norte [Nash] deveriam formar uma segunda linha na retaguarda de Sullivan e Wayne. O General Greene, com a ala esquerda, deveria se mover pela estrada do Norte de Gales para atacar a direita do inimigo, a linha de frente desta ala sendo composta pelas divisões de Greene e McDougall, e a segunda linha, de Stephen enquanto Smallwood, com seu Maryland, e Forman, com sua milícia de Jersey, deveria atacá-los pelo flanco direito e pela retaguarda. Ao mesmo tempo, o General Armstrong, com sua divisão da milícia da Pensilvânia, deveria mover-se pela velha estrada do Egito ou Schuylkill, e decolar um piquete Hessian postado lá, e atacar a ala esquerda e a retaguarda do inimigo. O ataque deveria começar a cada quinze minutos às cinco da manhã ”(Pickering e Upham, descrição de Life of Pickering começa com Octavius ​​Pickering e Charles W. Upham. The Life of Timothy Pickering. 4 vols. Boston, 1867-73. Descrição termina, 1: 166–67 para a disposição das tropas americanas de ataque, ver também GW para Hancock, 5 de outubro, e John Sullivan para Meshech Weare, 25 de outubro de 1777, em Hammond, a descrição dos Documentos de Sullivan começa com Otis G. Hammond, ed. Cartas e Documentos do Major-General John Sullivan, Exército Continental. 3 vols. Concord, 1930-39. Em Coleções da Sociedade Histórica de New Hampshire, vols. 13-15. A descrição termina, 1: 542-47).

Para executar esse complicado plano de ataque em quatro frentes, a GW tinha à disposição cerca de onze mil homens, dos quais cerca de oito mil eram continentais e cerca de três mil milícias (ver Conselho de Guerra, 28 de setembro). Os Continentais compunham as duas principais colunas de ataque comandadas por Sullivan e Greene e as forças de reserva que os apoiavam. Incluindo as reservas, a coluna de Sullivan, que atacou a ala esquerda de Howe ao longo da Germantown Road, aparentemente tinha uma força de cerca de três mil homens, e a coluna de Greene, que atacou a ala direita britânica ao longo da Lime Kiln Road, aparentemente incluía cerca de cinco mil homens. “O motivo de enviarmos tantas tropas para atacar sua direita”, escreveu Sullivan a Meshech Weare em 25 de outubro, “foi porque se supunha que se esta ala do Inimigo pudesse ser forçada, seu exército deve ter sido empurrado para dentro de Sculkill ou foram compelidos a se render. Portanto, pelo menos dois terços do exército foram destacados para se opor à direita do inimigo ”(ibid., 543). A milícia foi designada para as duas colunas laterais externas que avançavam respectivamente ao longo do rio Schuylkill cerca de duas milhas a oeste de Germantown e da Old York Road a uma distância semelhante a leste da cidade (ver notas 5 e 6).

O exército de Howe em Germantown havia sido esgotado pelo destacamento em 26 de setembro de Cornwallis com os granadeiros britânicos e hessianos e dois esquadrões de dragões leves para ocupar a Filadélfia cerca de cinco milhas a sudeste e a partida três dias depois dos 10º e 42º Regimentos para atacar o forte Billingsport no rio Delaware, desdobramentos dos quais GW estava ciente e que motivaram sua decisão de atacar em 4 de outubro (ver GW para Hancock, 5 de outubro). Naquela data, provavelmente havia de sete a oito mil soldados britânicos e hessianos nas proximidades de Germantown, mas a força de combate efetiva pode ter sido menor. Um relatório ao general Hessian Ditfurth diz que "se o ataque do General Washington tivesse sido tão bem executado como havia sido planejado, nosso exército, que não consistia de mais de 5.000 combatentes, estaria em uma posição muito crítica, para doze dos batalhões mais fortes foram destacados ”(citado em McGuire, Surprise of Germantown descrição começa com Thomas J. McGuire. The Surprise of Germantown, ou, The Battle of Cliveden, 4 de outubro de 1777. Gettysburg, Pa., 1994. descrição termina, 103 n.48 ver também ibid., 31, e Chastellux, Travels in North America description started Marquis de Chastellux. Travels in North America in the Years 1780, 1781 e 1782. Traduzido e editado por Howard C. Rice, Jr. 2 vols. Chapel Hill, NC, 1963. termina a descrição, 1: 137).

O exército de Howe estava bem posicionado, no entanto, em terreno que favorecia fortemente os defensores. Germantown consistia em uma série de casas em sua maioria de pedra espalhadas por cerca de três quilômetros ao longo da Germantown Road, que corria a noroeste da Filadélfia em direção a Reading. A maioria das casas ficava de frente para a estrada e, atrás delas, estendia-se uma infinidade de campos fechados e pomares divididos por muros, cercas, sebes e vielas perpendiculares à estrada principal. Qualquer ataque ao longo da Germantown Road seria inevitavelmente desorganizado pela necessidade de cruzar esses obstáculos feitos pelo homem, bem como os inúmeros riachos, ravinas e colinas baixas da área (mapa 4).

A principal linha de defesa de Howe, localizada a uma curta distância a sudeste da praça do mercado da cidade, também ficava perpendicular à Germantown Road. A ala esquerda, que era comandada pelo General Knyphausen, estendia-se paralelamente ao sudoeste com School House Lane de Germantown Road até o rio Schuylkill, onde os jägers Hessian do Tenente Coronel Wurmb ocupavam um pequeno reduto na Manatawny Road perto da foz de Wissahickon Creek. O resto da ala de Knyphausen consistia na brigada Hessian do General Stirn e nas Brigadas Britânicas 3ª e 4ª comandadas respectivamente pelos generais Charles Gray e James Agnew. A ala direita, que era comandada pelo general James Grant, era paralela à Church Lane, que corria a nordeste da praça até Luken’s Mill perto da junção com a Lime Kiln Road. Consistia no corpo de guardas do general Edward Mathew, seis regimentos regulares britânicos e dois esquadrões de dragões leves. A segurança externa para o norte e oeste foi fornecida pelos Rangers da Rainha na Old York Road, o 1º Batalhão de Infantaria Ligeira na Lime Kiln Road e o 2º Batalhão de Infantaria Ligeira e o 40º Regimento do Tenente-Coronel Thomas Musgrave na Germantown Road. A 2ª Infantaria Ligeira estava em Mount Pleasant, uma pequena colina cerca de três quilômetros a noroeste da praça do mercado, com piquetes postados a uma curta distância na Germantown Road em Mount Airy, a residência de campo do ex-presidente da Pensilvânia William Allen, Sênior. O 40º Regimento, que estava acampado perto da propriedade de campo de Benjamin Chew em Cliveden, a meio caminho entre Mount Pleasant e a praça, estava em posição de apoiar qualquer um dos batalhões de infantaria leve em caso de necessidade (ver Howe to Germain, 10 de outubro de 1777, em Davies , Documentos da descrição da Revolução Americana começa KG Davies, ed. Documentos da Revolução Americana, 1770-1783 (Colonial Office Series). 21 vols. Shannon e Dublin, 1972-81. Termina a descrição, 14: 202-9 John Eager Howard para Timothy Pickering, 29 de janeiro de 1827, em Md. Mag. description começa Maryland Historical Magazine. Baltimore, 1906–. description termina, 4: 314–20 e McGuire, Surprise of Germantown description começa Thomas J. McGuire. The Surprise of Germantown , ou, The Battle of Cliveden, 4 de outubro de 1777. Gettysburg, Pa., 1994. termina a descrição, 15-16).

Para relatos da Batalha de Germantown em 4 de outubro, ver GW para Hancock, 5 de outubro, e as notas desse documento ver também Anthony Wayne para GW, 4 de outubro, e GW para Benjamin Harrison, 5 de outubro.

1 Esta coluna, comandada por Sullivan, marchou para sudeste pela Skippack Road e atacou a ala esquerda britânica ao longo da Germantown Road. Manatawny ou Ridge Road, que corria ao longo do rio Schuylkill paralelamente à Germantown Road cerca de duas milhas ao sudoeste, foi usada pela milícia do general John Armstrong da Pensilvânia para atacar a extremidade esquerda da posição britânica (ver nota 5).

2 Esta coluna, que era comandada por Greene, aparentemente marchou para sudeste pela Morris Road, que corria paralela à Skippack Road cerca de duas milhas a nordeste, e então atacou a ala direita britânica ao longo da Lime Kiln Road.

3 No final da cópia dessas ordens nos Documentos McDougall, McDougall escreveu: “a mesma estrada que viemos a cerca de 4 milhas para Markey's, então a primeira estrada à esquerda para Shulers ⟨Sworts⟩ ou Stouffers na estrada North⟨ward⟩, depois, a ⟨Short⟩ Road para a Baptist Road na Bethlem Road perto de Neshaminy. ”

5 O general John Armstrong, que comandava a milícia da Pensilvânia, escreveu a Horatio Gates em 9 de outubro que no plano de ataque a Germantown, “meu destino era contra os estrangeiros, ao invés de desviar do que com a milícia lutar contra seu corpo superior, por mais que tentássemos ambos ”(Gates Papers, NHi). O moinho de John Vanderen, localizado em Wissahickon Creek perto de sua confluência com o rio Schuylkill e próximo à ponte onde Manatawny ou Ridge Road cruzava o riacho, ficava na extremidade esquerda da principal linha britânica onde os jägers Hessian estavam postados (ver Ewald, A descrição do diário começa com Johann Ewald. Diário da Guerra Americana: A Hessian Journal. Traduzido e editado por Joseph P. Tustin. New Haven e Londres, 1979. termina a descrição, 91, 93). A taverna aparentemente ficava perto de Levering's Ford em Schuylkill, a uma curta distância a noroeste da fábrica de Vanderen.

6 O Major Asher Holmes do 1º Regimento do Condado de Monmouth, NJ, milícia escreveu para sua esposa Sarah Watson Holmes em 6 de outubro: “A Milícia de Jersey e os Casacos Vermelhos sob o general Forman e a Milícia de Maryland, com algumas tropas listadas sob Gen. Smallwood, estavam na ala esquerda de todo o exército ”(NJ Hist. Soc. A descrição dos procedimentos começa em Proceedings of the New Jersey Historical Society. 84 vols. Newark, NJ, 1845–1966. Termina a descrição, novo ser., 7 : 34–35). Os "casacos vermelhos" de Forman aparentemente eram soldados que haviam sido alistados em seu regimento continental adicional e estavam vestidos com uniformes britânicos capturados.

A rota complicada de Forman e Smallwood aparentemente exigia que eles marchassem para sudeste pela Morris Road até a Bethlehem Road e depois para o sul até sua junção com a Skippack Road em Whitemarsh. As fábricas de Daniel Morris e Jacob Edge ficavam em Wissahickon Creek, perto de sua confluência com Sandy Run, a uma curta distância ao norte de Whitemarsh. A Igreja Episcopal de St. Thomas em Whitemarsh foi ocupada por ambos os exércitos em vários momentos durante a guerra. De Whitemarsh, a rota foi para sudeste na Church Road até uma taverna na Old York Road de propriedade de William Jenkins (m. 1778) e depois para o sul na Old York Road, passando pela taverna de Benjamin Armitage até um cruzamento com Church Lane, ao longo da qual a ala direita do exército de Howe foi postado.


O nome "Germanna", selecionado pelo tenente governador Alexander Spotswood, refletia tanto os imigrantes alemães que cruzaram o Atlântico para a Virgínia quanto a rainha britânica, Anne, que estava no poder na época do primeiro assentamento em Germanna. Embora ela morresse apenas alguns meses após a chegada dos alemães, seu nome continua a fazer parte da área.

Como parte de uma série de concessões de terras concedidas a colonos para criar uma proteção contra os franceses, o Conselho Privado concedeu a Spotswood 86.000 acres (350 km 2) no recém-criado condado de Spotsylvania em 1720, do qual o trato Germanna foi o primeiro, enquanto ele foi vice-governador e atual chefe executivo do governo da Virgínia. Ele serviu nesta função entre 1710 e 1722 e, em 1716, realizou sua famosa expedição Cavaleiros da Ferradura Dourada e promoveu muitas reformas e melhorias.

Spotswood foi substituído como vice-governador por Hugh Drysdale em 1722. Os historiadores sugerem que sua remoção pode ter sido o resultado de anos de desarmonia entre ele e o Conselho, bem como quando ele aceitou uma grande quantidade de terra, que ele mostrou um desrespeito à política da Coroa, que afirmava que nenhuma pessoa ou família poderia reivindicar mais de mil acres de terras na Virgínia. [ citação necessária ]

Spotswood estabeleceu uma colônia de imigrantes alemães no trato de Germanna em 1714, em parte para defesa da fronteira, mas principalmente para operar sua siderúrgica recém-desenvolvida. Germanna foi a sede do condado de Spotsylvania de 1720 a 1732. Spotswood ergueu uma casa palaciana e, depois que os alemães se mudaram para Germantown, continuou as ferragens com trabalho escravo. Em seus últimos anos, ele serviu como vice-diretor do correio geral para as colônias.

As colônias da Germanna consistem principalmente da Primeira Colônia de quarenta e duas pessoas da área de Siegerland na Alemanha trazida para a Virgínia para trabalhar para Spotswood em 1714, e a Segunda Colônia de vinte famílias da área do Palatinado, Baden e Württemberg da Alemanha trazida em 1717 , mas também inclui outras famílias alemãs que se juntaram às duas primeiras colônias em datas posteriores. Embora muitas famílias Germanna posteriormente tenham migrado para o sul e oeste do Piemonte, na Virgínia, a evidência genealógica mostra que muitas das famílias se casaram por gerações, produzindo uma rica herança genealógica.

O local do primeiro assentamento, Fort Germanna, está localizado no atual Condado de Orange, ao longo das margens do rio Rapidan, com assentamentos subsequentes de alemães sendo estabelecidos em locais nos atuais condados de Culpeper e Spotsylvania. Muitas famílias Germanna desempenharam papéis em eventos importantes no início da história americana, como a Revolução Americana e a migração para o oeste de Kentucky e além.

O local do Fort Germanna é formado principalmente por campos abertos com matagais intermediários de madeira secundária. O local do Fort Germanna foi listado no Registro Nacional de Locais Históricos em 1978. [1] Traços dos terraços da mansão de Spotswood, que veio a ser conhecida como "Castelo Encantado", ainda são discerníveis. A Fundação Germanna está conduzindo a exploração arqueológica do Forte Germanna, da Floresta de Siegen e dos sítios Salubria de sua propriedade nos condados de Orange e Culpeper.

A Fundação Germanna possui terras na península original de Germanna, em ambos os lados da Rodovia Germanna, Rota Estadual 3, perto do local do Forte Germanna original, que já foi o posto avançado mais a oeste da Virgínia colonial. A Fundação Germanna opera o Centro de Visitantes Brawdus Martin Fort Germanna no lado da Floresta Siegen da Rodovia Germanna, 15 milhas (24 km) a leste de Culpeper e 20 milhas (32 km) a oeste de Fredericksburg, Virgínia. A Fundação também possui uma mansão do século 18 nas proximidades, Salubria, que já foi a casa da viúva do governador Spotswood. Em outubro de 2000, Salubria foi doado pela família Grayson à Fundação Germanna para preservação histórica. [3] A Fundação mantém uma biblioteca de pesquisa, um jardim memorial e planeja trilhas interpretativas para vários sítios históricos e arqueológicos. Além disso, a Fundação publica histórias e livros genealógicos, um boletim informativo, oferece programas educacionais em uma Conferência Histórica Anual e Reunião e para a comunidade, e oferece viagens em grupo para a Alemanha voltadas para a origem das famílias Germanna.

Edição da primeira colônia

A primeira colônia consistia nos sobrenomes da família: Albrecht, Brombach / Brumback, Fischbach / Fishback, Hager, Friesenhagen, Heide / Heite / Hitt, Heimbach, Hofmann, Holzklau / Holtzclaw, Huttmann, Kemper / Camper, Cuntze / Koontz, Merdten / Martin , Otterbach / Utterback, Reinschmidt, Richter / Rector, Spielmann, Weber / Weaver [4] & ltref & gtWillis M. Kemper e Harry Linn Wright, Genealogia da Família Kemper nos Estados Unidos: Descendants of John Kemper of Virginia (Chicago: Geo. K . Hazlitt & amp Co., 1899), 31, 40, 51. & ltref & gtWilliam J. Hinke, "The First German Reformed Colony in Virginia: 1714-1750" (Journal of the Presbyterian Historical Society (1901-1930), Vol. 2, No. 2, 1903), 2, 8. & ltref & gtCharles Herbert Huffman, Editor Dr. Benjamin C. Holtzclaw, The Story of Germanna Descendants in Reunion at Siegen Forest Virginia (Virginia: The Memorial Foundation of the Germanna Colonies in Virginia, Inc. 1960 ), 22. & ltref & gtCharles Herbert Huffman, Editor Dr. Benjamin C. Holtzclaw, The Germanna Record, G ermanna Record No. 1: Hitt, Martin, Weaver (Culpeper, Virginia: The Memorial Foundation of the Germanna Colonies in Virginia, Inc. 1961), 5-42. & ltref & gtDr. Benjamin C. Holtzclaw, Ancestrais e Descendentes dos Imigrantes Nassau-Siegen para a Virgínia, 1714-1750 (Virgínia: A Fundação Memorial das Colônias Germanna na Virgínia, Inc. 1964), 185-192. & ltref & gtDr. Lothar Irle, Siegerlander Personlichkeiten- und Geschlechter-Lexicon (Siegen: Selbstverlag des Siegerlander Heimatvererins, 1974), 131.

  • 1710 18 de maio Incorporação da George Ritter Company em Londres, uma sociedade anônima com atividade por 20 anos. Os parceiros incluem Christoph de Graffenreid e Franz Ludwig Michel. O agente da George Ritter Company é Johann Justus Albrecht, enviado a Siegerland para recrutar mineiros nas Carolinas ou na Virgínia.
  • 15 de agosto de 1711 Johann Justus Albrecht assina um contrato com os ministros de Siegen
  • 5 de setembro de 1711 Hermannus Otterbach solicita permissão para imigrar
  • 1712 12 de maio Johann Justus Albrecht compõe o Union Book para a George Ritter Company
  • 1713 12 de julho O pastor Knabenschuh vai para Oberfischbach para descobrir que o pastor Haeger se foi e o professor, Hans Jacob Holtzklau "também está disposto a viajar".

& ltref & gtStaatsarchiv Munster, Furstentum Siegen Landesarchiv 24, No. 76 & ltref & gtCópia da carta original do Pastor Knabenschuh foi encontrada por Emil Flender enquanto pesquisava os Arquivos Siegen para o Dr. BC Holtzclaw, Emil Flender a enviou para o Dr. Holtzclaw junto com a tradução o Centro de Visitantes da Fundação Germanna nos documentos do Dr. Holtzclaw.

  • 17 de julho de 1713: Jacob Holzklau pede permissão para imigrar. Hermann Otterbach solicitou permissão para imigrar em 5 de setembro de 1711, o primeiro do grupo a fazê-lo.

& ltref & gtStaatsarchiv Munster, Furstentum Siegen Landesarchiv 11, No. 28 BS2.

& ltref & gtStaatsarchiv Munster, Furstentum Siegen Landesarchiv 11, No. 28 BS2.

  • Verão de 1713: as pessoas chegaram a Londres
  • Janeiro de 1714: eles partiram para a Virgínia em um navio desconhecido
  • Final de março de 1714: Spotswood fica sabendo pelo coronel Nathaniel Blakiston, o agente da Virgínia em Londres, que os alemães estão chegando
  • Abril de 1714: os alemães chegaram à Virgínia
  • 1714: estabeleceu a primeira igreja reformada alemã no continente, que também funcionou como uma fortaleza defensiva
  • 1716: eles começaram as operações de mineração na mina de prata - precisa provar isso!
  • 1718, no início do ano: foram instruídos a procurar ferro
  • 1720 de maio: Johann Justus Albrecht arquivar declaração sobre "onze trabalhadores para trabalhar em minas ou pedreiras em ou perto de Germanna e começamos a trabalhar março mil setecentos e 15/16 e assim continuamos até dezembro mil setecentos e dezoito . "

Em dezembro de 1718, Spotswood disse que gastou cerca de 60 libras na empreitada, então não havia fornalha de ferro. & ltref & gtEssex County, Virginia Deed Book No. 16, p. 180

  • Janeiro de 1719 a 20: O pastor Haeger e os membros da Primeira Colônia mudaram-se para o condado de Stafford, Virgínia, que atualmente é o condado de Fauquier, na Virgínia. Os três membros naturalizados do grupo, John Fishback, John Hoffman e Jacob Holtzclaw, garantiram 1805 acres para distribuição ao grupo a ser dividido igualmente

& ltref & gt Livro A da Escritura do Condado de Spotsylvania, pág. 165 - Naturalização de Jacob Holtzclaw & ltref & gt


Comentários recentes (ver todos os 9 comentários)

Esta era a â € œgrande dameâ € dos teatros de Germantown. Era realmente uma joia em sua época, muito opulenta e elegante. Abriu como uma casa de vaudeville com um palco profundo que podia (e era) usado para produções teatrais e concertos. Também foi usado para exibir filmes. Na década de 1930, metade do tempo era usado para exibição de filmes. Na década de 1950, com exceção de um concerto ocasional, era usado principalmente como um cinema. Ele fechou e foi demolido em 1967. As lojas de varejo agora estão no local do antigo Orpheum.

Aqui está um link para a visualização em miniatura do antigo Orpheum. Tenho uma foto dele e vou carregá-la quando puder.

Localizada na 42 West Chelten Avenue, esta era uma joia arquitetônica, por dentro e por fora, e continha detalhes muito intrincados e elaborados. Era um teatro muito elegante e opulento em sua época. Os registros encontrados indicam que o Orpheum tinha capacidade para 1.706, mas os primeiros registros indicam que tinha uma capacidade para mais de 2.000 lugares. Construída em 1913 como uma casa de vaudeville, também foi usada para produções teatrais, concertos e filmes. Tinha um palco profundo, grande fosso de orquestra, um grande órgão, vários camarins atrás do palco, uma varanda e camarotes individuais em ambos os lados do auditório. O auditório foi decorado de forma elaborada e tinha um teto pintado com murais. O elegante saguão principal era decorado com lustres e dourados. Tinha grandes escadarias de cada lado do saguão principal que levavam ao saguão do segundo andar. Este também era um grande saguão, fora da área da varanda e tinha uma grande janela panorâmica que dava para a movimentada Avenida Chelten.

Diz-se que, nos primeiros dias do Orpheum, 15.000 a 20.000 pessoas por dia iam a vários teatros de Germantown & rsquos. Sendo esta a sua principal fonte de entretenimento. A admissão no Orpheum nos primeiros dias era de apenas 5 ou 10 centavos e seu programa mudava diariamente. Com o desaparecimento do vaudeville, o Orpheum tornou-se mais parecido com um cinema, mas ainda apresentava produções teatrais, big band e outros shows durante os anos 1940. Na década de 1950, o Orpheum era usado apenas como uma sala de cinema. Como outros teatros independentes na Filadélfia e em todo o país, o Orpheum foi vítima da popularidade crescente da televisão. Outro fator para o seu desaparecimento é o declínio do outrora movimentado distrito comercial de Germantown & amp Chelten Avenues. Além dos altos custos de manutenção de um teatro tão grande como o Orpheum, a sentença de morte foi evidente. Fechou em 1967 e foi demolido para dar lugar a algumas lojas de varejo.

Este foi um dos únicos cinemas de Germantown & rsquos em que eu estive, mas me lembro tão pouco dele. Eu simplesmente não apreciava na época as joias da arquitetura que eram esses antigos teatros.

O Orpheum era o & ldquogrande dame & rdquo dos teatros de Germantown & rsquos. Mas, Germantown e arredores tinham muitos mais teatros e vários teatros enormes planejados, mas nunca construídos. Para resumir, Germantown tinha 10 teatros & ndash o Orpheum, o Walton, o Chelten, o Allen, o Lyric (também conhecido como Manheim e o New Lyric), o Colonial (também conhecido como Nixon Colonial), o Vernon (também conhecido como Germantown), o Bandbox, o Vernon Palace (de curta duração) e o Wayne Avenue Theatre. Havia 4 teatros adicionais nas proximidades de Germantown e amp Chelten, mas nunca construídos por causa da depressão. Havia um quinto cinema muito grande planejado para onde Chelten Avenue & ldquobends & rdquo (Chelten Ave encontra Wister St & amp Wyncote Ave). Isso nunca foi construído porque a palavra vazou sobre a intenção e os proprietários de terras locais exageraram os preços de suas terras). Então, quando você leva em conta os teatros Mt. Airy & ndash o Rialto (também conhecido como o Tulpehocken), o Upsal (também conhecido como Pelham) e o Segwick, junto com Chestnut Hill & rsquos um teatro & ndash the Hill (também conhecido como Bevedere), isso é muito dos cinemas dentro e ao redor de Germantown. Para alguns, o edifício ainda existe, apenas utilizado para outro fim. Mas, como teatros, todos são apenas memórias e fazem parte da história de Germantown.

Anteriormente, em minha resposta ao teatro Vernon, mencionei ter sido levado a esses teatros de Germantown na década de 40 por meus pais. Lembro-me do Orpheum ser o mais elegante de todos. Se bem me lembro, meu pai & ldquocall antecipadamente & rdquo para assentos reservados, e nós pegaríamos os ingressos na bilheteria. Em seguida, seríamos conduzidos pelo corredor até nossos assentos reservados. In the 40s and early 50s going to the movies was a big event, and we would always dress up for the occasion &mdash especially when going to some place as fine as the Orpheum. I recently saw a photo of a 1940s movie audience, and all the women were dressed up and the men were all wearing suits and ties. A different world.

I saw my first film, &ldquoBabes in Toyland&rdquo in the Orpheum when I was just 4 years old. I cried when they tore down this beautiful old theater.


Battle of Germantown

Place of the Battle of Germantown: North of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in the United States of America.

Combatants at the Battle of Germantown: The American Continental Army against the British and Hessian forces

Generals at the Battle of Germantown: General George Washington against Major-General Sir William Howe

Size of the armies at the Battle of Germantown: 11,000 Americans against 8,000 British and Hessians.

Uniforms, arms and equipment at the Battle of Germantown:

The British wore red coats, with bearskin caps for the grenadiers, tricorne hats for the battalion companies and caps for the light infantry. The Highland Scots troops wore the kilt and feather bonnet.

The two regiments of light dragoons serving in America, the 16 th and 17 th , wore red coats and crested leather helmets.

Grenadier of the British 40th Regiment of Foot: Battle of Germantown on 4th October 1777 in the American Revolutionary War

The Hessian infantry wore blue coats and retained the Prussian style grenadier mitre cap with brass front plate.

The Americans dressed as best they could. Increasingly as the war progressed infantry regiments of the Continental Army mostly took to wearing blue or brown uniform coats. The American militia continued in rough clothing.

Both sides were armed with muskets. The British and German infantry carried bayonets, which were in short supply among the American troops. Many men in the Pennsylvania and Virginia regiments carried rifled weapons, as did other backwoodsmen. Both sides were supported by artillery.

Winner: The British won the battle, but failed to follow up the success, permitting Washington to withdraw and reform his army behind fortified positions.

British Regiments at the Battle of Germantown: The British Regiments that can be identified at the battle are: Light Dragoons (not clear which regiment 16 th or 17 th ), two composite battalions of grenadiers, two composite battalions of light infantry, two composite battalions of Foot Guards (1 st , 2 nd and 3 rd Guards), 5 th Foot, 25 th Foot, 27 th Foot, 40 th Foot and 55 th Foot.

American Units at the Battle of Germantown:
Colonel Bland’s 1 st Dragoons, Wayne’s Pennsylvania Brigade, Weeden’s Virginia Brigade, Muhlenburg’s Virginia Brigade, Maxwell’s Light Infantry, Stephen’s Division, Stirling’s Division, Pennsylvania Militia, Maryland Militia and New Jersey Militia.

British Queen’s Rangers: Battle of Germantown on 4th October 1777 in the American Revolutionary War

Background to the Battle of Germantown:

Following the British capture of Philadelphia after the Battle of Brandywine, Howe’s troops encamped in Germantown to the North of the city. The camp stretched in a line astride the main northern road.

Washington determined to surprise the British army in camp. His plan required a strong column under Major-General Nathaniel Greene, with McDougall, Muhlenberg, Stephen and Scott, to attack the right wing of the British army, which comprised Grant’s and Donop’s troops. The second column, which Washington commanded, with Stirling and Sullivan, would advance down the main Philadelphia road and attack the British centre. Forces of American militia would attack each wing of the British force, formed of the Queen’s Rangers on the right, and, on the left near the Schuylkill River, Hessian Jägers and British Light Infantry.

Washington’s plan required the four attacks to be launched “precisely at 5 o’clock with charged bayonets and without firing”. The intention was to surprise the whole British army in much the way the Hessians had been surprised at Trenton.

Map of the Battle of Germantown on 4th October 1777 in the American Revolutionary War: map by John Fawkes

Account of the Battle of Germantown:

Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Thomas Musgrave commanding 40th Foot at the Battle of Germantown on 4th October 1777 in the American Revolutionary War

The American columns started along their respective approach roads on the evening of 3 rd October 1777. Dawn found the American forces well short of their start line for the attack, and there was an encounter with the first British piquet which fired its guns to warn of the attack. The outpost was supported by a battalion of light infantry and the 40 th Foot, under Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Thomas Musgrave. It took a substantial part of Sullivan’s division to drive back the British contingent.

General Howe rode forward, initially thinking the advanced force was being attacked by a raiding party, his view impeded by a thickening fog that clouded the field for the rest of the day.

During the fighting, Musgrave caused six companies of the 40 th to fortify the substantial stone house of Chief Justice Chew, Cliveden House situated on the main road, and use it as a strong point. The American advance halted, while furious attacks were launched against the house, aided by an American artillery barrage.

Hearing the firing, Major-General Adam Stephen, heading the other main American column, ignored his orders to continue along the lane to attack the British right wing, swung to his right and made for the Chew House. His brigade joined the attack on the house, which was assailed for a full hour by the infantry and guns of several American brigades.

British 40th Foot occupying the Chew House at the Battle of Germantown on 4th October 1777 in the American Revolutionary War: picture by Xavier della Gatta

The rest of Greene’s division launched a savage attack on the British line as planned and broke through, capturing several British troops.

In the meantime, Sullivan and Wayne continued past the Chew House and began their attack. In the fog, Wayne’s brigade encountered Stephen’s brigade and the two American brigades exchanged fire. Both brigades broke and fled.

American guns fire on the Chew House at the Battle of Germantown on 4th October 1777 in the American Revolutionary War

Sullivan’s brigade was attacked on both flanks, on his left by Grant with the British 5th and 55th Regiments of Foot, and on his right by Brigadier Grey. Sullivan’s brigade broke. The British then turned on Greene’s isolated division, capturing Colonel Matthews and his 9th Virginia Regiment.

Attacked by the British Guards and the 25 th and 27 th Foot, Greene withdrew up the main road to the north west, assisted by the efforts of Muhlenberg’s brigade. As the American army retreated, its condition deteriorated and Washington was forced to withdraw some sixteen miles, harried by the British light dragoons.

The American attack on the Chew House at the Battle of Germantown on 4th October 1777 in the American Revolutionary War

The American militia forces did not develop their attacks and finally retreated.

Casualties at the Battle of Germantown:
500 British were killed, wounded or captured in the battle. 1,000 Americans were killed, wounded or captured in the battle.

50 Americans were killed attacking the Chew House.

The American attack on the Chew House at the Battle of Germantown on 4th October 1777 in the American Revolutionary War: picture by Edward Lamson Henry

Follow-up to the Battle of Germantown:
It is said that the Battle of Germantown was a profound influence in convincing the French Court that the American cause was worth supporting with war on England. The French were more impressed by the ability of the Americans to raise their army and deliver an attack on the British than by its lack of success.

A noteworthy feature of the battle was the failure of the British to exploit their battlefield success by pursuing and destroying the defeated American force.

The American attack on the Chew House at the Battle of Germantown on 4th October 1777 in the American Revolutionary War (the uniforms portrayed are late 18th Century)

Anecdotes and traditions from the Battle of Germantown:

American Continental soldier: Battle of Germantown on 4th October 1777 in the American Revolutionary War

  • General Stephen was discovered by the American authorities at the end of the battle incapably drunk. He was cashiered and his command given to Lafayette.
  • Major-General Adam Stephen (or Steven) was another American officer who began his military career commanding a Virginian company under General Edward Braddock in 1755 (see Defeat of Braddock Part 6).
  • The Americans suffered at the Battle of Germantown from the perennial difficulty of 18 th Century armies to re-supply their troops. Many of the American regiments ran out of ammunition during the battle.
  • General Sir George Osborn, the colonel of the 40 th Regiment of Foot, caused a medal to be struck to commemorate the defence of the Chew House by the regiment at the Battle of Germantown. Silver medals were awarded to the officers and copper medals to the soldiers: an early example of a campaign medal.

40th Regiment Medal obverse: Battle of Germantown on 4th October 1777 in the American Revolutionary War

References for the Battle of Germantown:

History of the British Army by Sir John Fortescue

The War of the Revolution by Christopher Ward

The American Revolution by Brendan Morrissey

The Philadelphia Campaign Volume II Germantown and the Roads to Valley Forge by Thomas J. McGuire

The previous battle of the American Revolutionary War is the Battle of Paoli

The next battle of the American Revolutionary War is the Battle of Saratoga

Chief Justice Chew’s Cliveden House: Battle of Germantown on 4th October 1777 in the American Revolutionary War

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Early Indigenous History Edit

The area that is currently known as Germantown was originally occupied by the Mohicans. In the early eighteenth century, Hendrick Aupaumut recorded the movement of his people that brought them to settle along the rivers that would later be named the Delaware and Hudson. Those who had continued north settled in the valley of the river they named the Mahicannituck, meaning the Waters That Are Never Still. They named themselves the Muh-he-con-neok after the river, a name that eventually evolved to the present day Mohican or Mahican.

The Mohicans settled in the valley, building wigwams and longhouses. The river and woodlands were abundant with life and food, which they supplemented with the corn, beans, and squash they grew. Mohican women were usually in charge of this agriculture, along with the homes and children, while men traveled to fish, hunt, or serve as warriors. [2] [3] [4]

During this time, Mohican territory extended from Manhattan to Lake Champlain, on both sides of the Mahicannituck, east to Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Vermont, and west to Scoharie Creek.

Colonization and European-Mohican Relations Edit

In September 1609, Henry Hudson, a trader for the Dutch, sailed up the Mahicannituck. The valley was rich with the beavers and otters whose fur the Dutch coveted, and in 1614 a trading post was established. As the fur trade expanded, making desired furs harder to find, tensions arose between the Mohicans and the Mohawk, who each sought to maintain their share in the fur trade and relations with European allies. Wars and their effects contributed to the loss of Mohican land to the point where territory in the Hudson Valley dwindled almost completely by the end of the seventeenth century. Mohicans were especially affected by European wars such as King Philip’s War where soldiers from Massachusetts and Connecticut attacked Mohicans. In general after war, Mohicans sold land to the Dutch in exchange for needed resources lost in the destruction of indigenous farming and preserved resources. As more and more Europeans arrived and settled on the land, the Mohicans’ self-reliance and reliance on the land was eroded by increased dependency on the settlers and their provisions. Settlers began dividing the land, establishing fences and boundary lines. Eventually, the Mohicans were driven from their territory west of the Mahicannituck and continued to move further east in the early 1700s. [5]

Robert Livingston, a Scots immigrant, bought thousands of acres from the Native Americans. In 1683, Mohicans sold the first land parcel along the Roelof Jansen Kill to Livingstone in exchange for goods as well as rights to hunting and fishing in the area. While Livingstone received a Mohican deed to the Tachkanick settlement in 1685, he only built his house in 1689. These exchanges were the beginning of a trade relationship that lasted through 1768. [6] He owned a total of 160,240 acres (64,850 ha) at what became Livingston Manor.

Moravian-Mohican Relations Edit

In the summer of 1740, the first Moravian mission was established in the Mohican village of Shekomeko. Before that, Moravian missionary Christian Henry Rauch approached two Mohican leaders, Maumauntissekun (AKA Shabash) and Wassamapah who were sojourning in NYC. Rauch wanted them to help bring Christianity to Mohican settlements. Maumauntissekun had a vision in 1739 where he and his Indian brethren laid dead in the woods. Because they suffered from alcoholism, he believed in the need for religion and temperance. Maumauntissekun agreed to bring Rauch to his town, Shekomeko. Initially, many Mohicans were skeptical of Rauch’s presence because Mohican land had been bought in such great quantities by Europeans. Nevertheless, Maumauntissekun was among the first three Shekomeko residents to be baptized on Feb 11, 1742. Maumauntissekun then became known as Abraham of Shekomeko. [7]

The Moravians lived among Mohicans in Dutchess County and Connecticut’s Housatonic Valley. Many Moravians missionaries learned Mohican languages, while often in areas of strong English and German influence, they did not. Children of Mohican converts learned to read and write in Moravian schools. By the mid-eighteenth century, much of Mohican territory was divided by colonial powers, leaving many without much semblance of spatial surroundings as they had a century before. Although many Mohicans were divided on the matter, there were Mohicans who adapted to a new way of life by converting to Christianity. Families often sent their children to be baptized and raised at Moravian headquarters in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania due to high mortality rates of children from European diseases and war. [8]

In the 1740s there were regional Indian raids on European settlements in New York and Massachusetts. Settlers believed that the French in Canada supplied Indians with weapons. Moravian missionaries were perceived as both allies to Canada and Indians and were thus accused of disloyalty for fomenting the uprisings. The last straw was drawn in early 1744 when Moravian missionaries refused to enter colonial militias. The New York government issued a September 1744 order that discontinued Moravian missionary activities in New York. [9]

Mohican-Settler Land Disputes Edit

In the 1720s, white settlers began to survey Dutchess County land that they claimed according to exchanges originating from the Great Nine Partners Patent. The latter was a landholding of between 8 and 10 miles in width from East of the Hudson almost to Connecticut at Oblong Patent. It was granted to white settlers in May of 1697 and the result of negotiations with Indians in eight grants from the Little Nine Partners Patent signed in April of 1706. [10]

Abraham of Shekomeko (formerly known as Maumauntissekun or Shabash) protested the claims but was still willing to sell some land. His grievance was based on Mohican tradition: land that was not used is open for his people to continue hunting and fishing in the area. The Dutchess County territory being surveyed was unoccupied by white settlers for over four decades, making European claims de jure. The Mohicans, on the other hand, had been hunting and farming on the land for over two decades. According to a missionary memorandum recorded in 1743, Abraham went to New York City in 1724 where the governor promised to pay for Mohican land and leave them with a square mile for Mohican settlement. In September of 1743 that square mile was divided by white settlers. In response, Abraham wrote to the governor disputing the unlawful claims. He tried to prove Mohican ownership by producing witnesses to the Little Nine Partners and even sent a petition around Shekomeko. In the end, the land was divided, and Abraham moved from the village site while Shekomeko was claimed by a proprietor. [11]

Founding of Germantown Edit

In 1710, Robert Livingston sold 6,000 acres (2,400 ha) of his property to Anne, Queen of Great Britain, for use as work camps and resettlement of Palatine German refugees. [12] Some 1,200 persons were settled at work camps to manufacture naval stores and pay off their passage as indentured labor. [13] Known as "East Camp", the colony had four villages: Hunterstown, Queensbury, Annsbury, and Haysbury. [14] The area was later renamed "Germantown". In 1775 Germantown was formed as a "district". [15] Germantown was one of the seven original towns of Columbia County established by an act passed March 7, 1788. (The others were: Kinderhook, Canaan, Claverack, Hillsdale, Clermont, and Livingston). [16]

In March 1845, a boat-load of people from East Camp, who had been to Hudson to make purchases, was run over first by a scow, and then by the steamboat América do Sul. All nine individuals were lost. [17]

Removal Edit

During the Revolution the Mohicans supported the colonists but after the war concluded it became apparent that the Mohicans were not welcome in their village. The Oneida offered them a portion of land and in the mid-1780s they began to move to New Stockbridge. Although the community thrived and the population grew steadily, land companies, hoping to make a profit from the land inhabited by Indigenous communities, proposed that New York State remove all Native Americans from within its borders. In 1822 agents from New York, missionaries, and commissioners from the War Department negotiated with the Menominee and Ho-Chunk communities of Wisconsin for a tract of land on which to relocate the indigenous tribes of New York. In the following years, members of the community was relocated to Wisconsin and settled on the reservation land. [18] [19] [20]

Today, the community is still located on the reservation in Shawano County, Wisconsin where they were forcibly relocated to in the mid-1800s, but enrolled members live throughout the state, the United States, and the world. 1,500 people, most of whom live in Wisconsin, trace their ancestry back to the people who first inhabited the Hudson Valley and are part of the Stockbridge-Munsee Mohican Nation. Some of the community members live on trust land in Wisconsin assigned for their use. Other members of the nation live on privately owned lands within the boundaries of the reservation.

The community has grown mobile homes, apartments, and permanent homes have been added to the original housing, a family center and a health and wellness center have been built, and the Pine Hills Golf Course has expanded. The nation has established The North Star Mohican Casino. They have also set up a Tribal Historic Preservation Office on the campus of the Sage Colleges in Albany to increase their presence in the Hudson Valley. [21] Members of the Nation continue to visit the Hudson Valley, to gather historical information from local libraries and archives, and visit sacred sites. [22] [23]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 13.9 square miles (36.1 km 2 ), of which 12.1 square miles (31.3 km 2 ) is land and 1.8 square miles (4.7 km 2 ), or 13.07%, is water. The west town line, marking the center of the Hudson River, is the border of Greene and Ulster counties.

População histórica
Censo Pop.
1820891
1830967 8.5%
1840969 0.2%
18501,023 5.6%
18601,353 32.3%
18701,393 3.0%
18801,608 15.4%
18901,683 4.7%
19001,686 0.2%
19101,649 −2.2%
19201,424 −13.6%
19301,462 2.7%
19401,427 −2.4%
19501,418 −0.6%
19601,504 6.1%
19701,782 18.5%
19801,922 7.9%
19902,010 4.6%
20002,018 0.4%
20101,954 −3.2%
2014 (est.)1,906 [24] −2.5%
U.S. Decennial Census [25]

As of the census [26] of 2000, there were 2,018 people, 831 households, and 546 families residing in the town. The population density was 166.0 people per square mile (64.1/km 2 ). There were 984 housing units at an average density of 81.0 per square mile (31.3/km 2 ). The racial makeup of the town was 96.93% White, 1.14% Black or African American, 0.15% Native American, 0.45% Asian, 0.40% from other races, and 0.94% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.29% of the population.

There were 831 households, out of which 28.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.7% were married couples living together, 7.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.2% were non-families. 28.8% of all households were made up of individuals, and 14.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.95.

In the town, the population was spread out, with 23.1% under the age of 18, 6.0% from 18 to 24, 27.1% from 25 to 44, 25.8% from 45 to 64, and 18.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.5 males.

The median income for a household in the town was $42,195, and the median income for a family was $50,885. Males had a median income of $36,806 versus $26,250 for females. The per capita income(which is also known as income per person) for the town was $22,198. About 5.0% of families and 7.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.3% of those under age 18 and 5.7% of those age 65 or over.

Germantown Library Edit

The library was first founded in 1948 by the Germantown Garden Club and Emily Finger Lappe in the town hall across from the current post office. It was run by volunteers for two years. [27] In 1950 the town hired their first librarian Bessie Muller-Babcock and she was paid $100 a year. When the town hall moved in 1980 the library moved with it until it became apparent that the library had outgrown the space.

In February of 2008, the library moved to its new permanent space. This building included dedicated spaces for children, young adults, media, and adults. At the same time, the Hover Room opened to the public for library programs, classes, and town meetings. In 2015 a makerspace area was added to the library, the first of its kind in Columbia County. [28] Just three years later the makerspace had to be expanded due to popularity. It was moved to the lower level where it occupies half of the floor.

When Covid hit and the library was forced to shut its doors all of their programs went online. Patrons were able to apply for and instantly get a library card online in order to access materials. Hoopla was added to the litany of services the library offers to give patrons more online choices. [29] In addition to Hoopla the library also offers Kanopy, Overdrive, Libby, Mango Languages, RB Digital Magazines, online Newspapers, and many other things. Free wifi can be accessed 24/7 and special senior citizen hours are available on Tuesdays and Fridays. [30]


The Battle of Germantown

In early October, Washington conceived a bold plan of attack on Howe's 9,000 troop garrison stationed in Germantown. It called for the simultaneous advance of four different units of troops &mdash moving by night. At dawn, the four columns were to converge not far from General Howe's headquarters and catch the British by surprise.

The morning (October 4, 1777) started well for the Americans who had the British retreating. But Washington's plan went astray when one of his four columns lost its bearings in a dense fog and thick smoke. Others columns failed to coordinate effectively.

Henry Knox
Charles Willson Peale, 1783, Portrait Gallery (Second Bank)

The British defense was particularly strong at a Germantown mansion named Cliveden where dozens of soldiers had taken refuge. Valuable time was lost while the Americans under Henry Knox bombarded the house. Those inside did not surrender because they feared that Anthony Wayne's men, still furious over the Paoli Massacre, would kill them anyway.

In the end, bad luck and poor timing forced Washington to retreat to Whitemarsh with the British in pursuit.

The Battle was an American defeat but it served to boost morale and self-confidence. They believed the defeat was the result of bad luck, not poor tactics.

The Americans suffered 152 losses, 521 wounded, and over 400 captured. The British casualties numbered 537 plus 14 captured.


Andre, Major John, Letter Regarding the Battle of Germantown

Born May 2, 1750 in London, England to a French mother and Swiss father, John André was educated in Geneva and spoke four languages: English, French, German and Italian. Though seemingly limited by his family's modest finances, André joined the British army in 1771, was commissioned lieutenant and sent for training in Germany. In 1774, André was deployed to Canada with the Royal English Fusiliers and was captured by American forces at the defense of St. Johns in 1775. In the winter of 1776, André was involved in a prisoner exchange that saw him sent to New York, where General William Howe promoted him to captain and assigned him to the command of Major General Charles Grey, whom he served as a personal aide.

Under Grey, André took part in the Philadelphia campaign of 1777-1778, which included the occupation of Philadelphia. During the nine months that André was in Philadelphia, he took up residence at Benjamin Franklin's home, and earned himself a reputation as a man of intelligence and superior social grace. Upon the British evacuation of Philadelphia, however, André shocked many of his local acquaintances by plundering Franklin's house, taking books, a painting of Franklin and several other items, apparently under the orders of General Grey. In November 1778, André was promoted to major and travelled with the retreating British army to New York, where he was placed in charge of British intelligence activities. In May 1779 he was introduced to the American general Benedict Arnold.

After cultivating his relationship with Arnold for over a year, the men put a plan into motion to turn over the American fortress at West Point over to the British, effectively severing the New England colonies from the southern colonies. The plot was uncovered by three American militiamen on the morning of September 23, 1780, and André was arrested and brought to Tappan, New York, for trial. After being convicted by a military court of being behind American lines "under a feigned name and in a disguised habit," André was hung on October 2, 1780, at the age of 29. André earned the respect of both sides of the conflict during the trial for refusing to pass blame for the events onto Arnold. Mourned by friend and foe alike, André was initially buried at Tappan, but his body was exhumed and reinterred in the Nave at Westminster Abbey. A fitting epitaph is provided by none other than George Washington, who wrote that André was, "more unfortunate than criminal," and "an accomplished man and gallant officer."

Works Cited: "Major John Andre". Independence Hall Association. 1997-2010. http://www.ushistory.org/march/bio/andre.htm (Retrieved 1/29/2010).

George Washington to John Laurens, October 13, 1780, http://memory.loc.gov/mss/mgw/mgw3h/002/110109.jpg (Retrieved 1/29/2010).

The collection consists of an eight-page letter written by Major John André during the Philadelphia campaign of the American Revolutionary War, as identified by historian and author Thomas J. McGuire. Written in Germantown in 1777, the letter chronicles the Philadelphia campaign from the British landing at Head of Elk, Maryland, in August 1777, through the Battle of Germantown, on October 4, 1777. Five of the pages were written on September 28, 1777, with the remaining three written on October 8, 1777.

The letter describes the conduct and aftermath of several battles of the American Revolution, including the Battle of Brandywine, the Battle of Paoli (also known as the Paoli Massacre) and the Battle of Germantown. It illustrates the participation in these battles of many well-known and important figures of the American Revolution, including American generals George Washington and Anthony Wayne, as well as British officers General Sir William Howe and Major General Charles Grey, and Hessian general Wilhelm von Knyphausen. Also recounted are the deaths of two of André's friends at the Battle of Germantown, Brigadier General James Agnew and Lieutenant Colonel John Bird, the latter of whom André calls, "a veteran of the greatest merit, & most estimable character."

The letter also demonstrates André's firm grasp of not only the conduct of the Philadelphia campaign and the disposition of the enemy, but also the attitudes and physical abilities of his own troops, adding to the narrative of André as a professional soldier, rather than just a spy, as he is more widely remembered. The letter was a gift of Robert L. McNeil, Jr., in 2006.


4 Jon Moxley And Kenny Omega

A lot of laughs were recently had at the expense of AEW over the end of their exploding barbed wire deathmatch at Revolution 2021. It didn't quite go the way they had hoped, though the performances of both Jon Moxley and Kenny Omega in the match were quite admirable. But their previous encounter was far more memorable.

The two men had a Non-Sanctioned match at Full Gear 2019 that left each of them with their own injuries and scars. That was a bout that fans are still talking about, one that savaged Moxley and Omega alike.


Nossa história

The German Society of Pennsylania
Since its founding in 1764, The German Society of Pennsylvania has served Philadelphia's German community. Between the 1680s and the American Revolution, the majority of an estimated 100,000 German-speaking immigrants coming to North America settled in Pennsylvania, making up a third of Philadelphia's population by the 1760s. These immigrants often arrived in a miserable state after long sea voyages known for unhealthy conditions. In response to their plight, on December 26, 1764, sixty-five prominent German colonists established an organization "for the relief of distressed Germans." Over the course of its 250-year history, the Society has evolved with the changing needs of the German-American population of Philadelphia. During the 1800s, the Society continued its support for immigrants in need while also increasingly sponsoring activities to preserve and promote German traditions and customs. Today, the Society's membership and programs are open to anyone with an interest in the German language and culture.

Charity
Initially, the Society focused its activities on helping Germans who arrived in Philadelphia under the indenture system, which required them to work off the cost of their voyage. In 1765, the Society successfully lobbied for legislation that protected these immigrants from exploitative contracts or abusive employers. It also provided newcomers with interpreters, financial assistance, and legal aid. A spike in German immigration in the late 1840s caused the Society to establish the Agentur (relief agency), which helped applicants with medical care, shelter, transportation, cash, and employment referrals. When the Women’s Auxiliary was founded in 1900, the Agentur shifted its focus to assisting single men find employment, while the Auxiliary helped entire families. With the outbreak of World War I, the Society and the Women’s Auxiliary expanded their relief efforts to include displaced Germans in Europe – an outreach that was repeated during World War II and the postwar years. Today, the Women’s Auxiliary leads the Society’s charitable mission by raising funds for a variety of Philadelphia-area non-profits.

Educação
Education has been an important focus of the German Society for much of its existence. Beginning in the 1780s, the Society provided financial assistance to young German men attending the University of Pennsylvania. In 1817, the Society established a Volksbibliothek, a lending library that offered members general interest and educational reading materials both in German and English. Today, the library holds the largest non-university collection of German materials in the United States, ranging from language primers to popular novels. An estimated 20% of these books cannot be found at other American libraries. In the 1860s, the Society launched a lecture series on German-American topics, and it started an Abendschule (night school) offering English language instruction for German speakers. As demand for English classes for recent immigrants waned over the course of the 20 th century, the Society’s educational offerings shifted to German language classes, both for adults and children. In addition, since the 1970s, it has provided over 250 scholarships for students from the tri-state area studying German in college.

Promoting German Culture
As the 19 th century progressed, the Society became more active in the promotion of German culture in Philadelphia. The mid-century spike in immigration became the impetus behind not only the Agentur, but also the Society’s involvement in celebrating events like Friedrich Schiller’s 100 th birthday in 1859 and the 200 th anniversary of the founding of Germantown in 1883. The library started to collect German-American publications, many of which, like the Demokrat e Freie Presse newspapers, were printed in Philadelphia. Today, its collections document the breadth of German cultural life in the city, such as large-scale celebrations of German-American Day as well as regional and national competitions for gymnastics (torneiro), rifle clubs (Schützenvereine), and singing associations (Sängerbünde) Many of these events were held at the Society’s current home at 611 Spring Garden Street, built in 1888 in what was then the heart of Philadelphia’s German community. By the end of the century, the Society had emerged as a major cultural institution and promoter of Deutschtum, or “Germanness.”

Challenges and Opportunities
At the beginning of the 20 th century, World War I, Prohibition, and the Great Depression presented the German Society and Philadelphia’s large German community with serious challenges. Following American entry into the war, the Society responded to strong anti-German sentiments by purchasing Liberty Bonds and organizing fundraising efforts for the Red Cross. Still, the fear of being identified as “un-American” caused a sharp drop in membership. After 1919, Prohibition devastated the local German brewing industry and ended many of the social customs that German-Americans had enjoyed. These factors, combined with restrictive immigration laws and the Great Depression, resulted in a decline of the Society’s status and influence. The outbreak of World War II continued the downward trend, although the remaining members mounted impressive war-related fundraising campaigns. After 1945, a surge in immigration from Germany reinvigorated the Society and completed its transformation into a cultural heritage organization.

The German Society Today
During the 1950s and 60s, the Society became an important focal point for the effort to re-establish the German-American presence in Philadelphia, culminating in the 200th Anniversary festivities of 1964. At the same time, German-Americans participated in the overall trend to leave city neighborhoods for the suburbs, making the building on Spring Garden less attractive for socializing. Many discussions were held about relocating to areas closer to where the Society members lived, but in the end, nobody wanted to give up the auditorium, with its superb setting for concerts, or the library, which at 70,000 volumes would have been much too large to take along. Simultaneously, the approaching 300th anniversary of the 1683 arrival of the first German settlers in Philadelphia sparked renewed interest on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean in the Society and its library, in the end allowing the Society to embark on an ambitious renovation project in the 1990s, funded by German and American government agencies and foundations as well as the Society itself. Since then, the library serves as a research center for German-American studies, and an expanding language program as well as new social events like a popular Bierfest have made it possible to gain new members from the region as a whole, not only its German-American community. At the beginning of the 21st century, the German Society is well poised to offer cultural, social, and educational experiences to a variety of audiences, whether they are recent immigrants, longstanding inhabitants of the area, or anybody interested in the German language and culture. None of this would be possible without the dedicated volunteers that have kept the Society going for over 250 years, a tradition that will hopefully continue for a very long time!

Every week, something fun is happening. Lectures, Panel Discussions, Movies, German soccer broadcasts, and music fill our home on Spring Garden Street in Philadelphia.


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